Doctor of Philosophy in Craniofacial Science (PhD)

Overview

The Faculty of Dentistry offers advanced study leading to the PhD in Craniofacial Science through one of the following areas of study:

  • Research in Population Health will explore the complex interactions (social, cultural, environmental) that affect the oral health of individuals, communities and populations.
  • Oral health related clinical research includes both interventional and observational studies focusing on the following: disease prevention, diagnosis, risk, treatment, prognosis and health care.
  • Basic science research in the areas of biomaterials, cell biology, developmental biology, microbiology and molecular biology is available.
 
 

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Admission Information & Requirements

In order to apply to this program, the following components may be required.

Online Application

All applicants must complete an online application form and pay the application fee to be considered for admission to UBC.

Minimum Academic Requirements

The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies establishes the minimum admission requirements common to all applicants, usually a minimum overall average in the B+ range (76% at UBC). The graduate program that you are applying to may have additional requirements. Please review the specific requirements for applicants with credentials from institutions in:

Each program may set higher academic minimum requirements. Meeting the minimum requirements does not guarantee admission as it is a competitve process.

Transcripts

All applicants have to submit transcripts from all past post-secondary study. Document submission requirements depend on whether your institution of study is within Canada or outside of Canada.

English Language Test

Applicants from a university outside Canada in which English is not the primary language of instruction must provide results of an English language proficiency examination as part of their application. Tests must have been taken within the last 24 months at the time of submission of your application.

Minimum requirements for the two most common English language proficiency tests to apply to this program are listed below:

93
22
21
22
21
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

Other Test Scores

Some programs require additional test scores such as the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or the Graduate Management Test (GMAT). The requirements for this program are:

The GRE is required by all applicants.

Letters of Reference

A minimum of three references are required for application to graduate programs at UBC. References should be requested from individuals who are prepared to provide a report on your academic ability and qualifications. 

Statement of Interest

Many programs require a statement of interest, sometimes called a "statement of intent", "description of research interests" or something similar.

Supervision

Students in research-based programs usually require a faculty member to function as their supervisor. Please follow the instructions provided by each program whether applicants should contact faculty members.

Instructions regarding supervisor contact for Doctor of Philosophy in Craniofacial Science (PhD)
Applicants should browse faculty profiles and indicate in their application who they are interested in working with. No commitment from a supervisor prior to applying is necessary, but contacting faculty members is encouraged.

Prior degree requirements

Applicants for the Ph.D. degree must hold a D.D.S., D.M.D., M.D., or D.V.M., or equivalent, or an M.Sc. in dental science or a related discipline.

Citizenship Verification

Permanent Residents of Canada must provide a clear photocopy of both sides of the Permanent Resident card.

Tuition & Financial Support

Tuition

FeesCanadian Citizen / Permanent Resident / Refugee / DiplomatInternational
Application Fee$106.00$168.25
Tuition *
Installments per year33
Tuition per installment$1,698.56$2,984.09
Tuition per year
(plus annual increase, usually 2%-5%)
$5,095.68$8,952.27
Int. Tuition Award (ITA) per year (if eligible) $3,200.00 (-)
Other Fees and Costs
Student Fees (yearly)$944.51 (approx.)
Costs of living (yearly)starting at $16,954.00 (check cost calculator)
* Regular, full-time tuition. For on-leave, extension, continuing or part time (if applicable) fees see UBC Calendar.
All fees for the year are subject to adjustment and UBC reserves the right to change any fees without notice at any time, including tuition and student fees. Tuition fees are reviewed annually by the UBC Board of Governors. In recent years, tuition increases have been 2% for continuing domestic students and between 2% and 5% for continuing international students. New students may see higher increases in tuition. Admitted students who defer their admission are subject to the potentially higher tuition fees for incoming students effective at the later program start date. In case of a discrepancy between this webpage and the UBC Calendar, the UBC Calendar entry will be held to be correct.

Financial Support

Applicants to UBC have access to a variety of funding options, including merit-based (i.e. based on your academic performance) and need-based (i.e. based on your financial situation) opportunities.

Program Funding Packages

All full-time students who begin a UBC-Vancouver PhD program in September 2018 or later will be provided with a funding package of at least $18,000 for each of the first four years of their PhD. The funding package may consist of any combination of internal or external awards, teaching-related work, research assistantships, and graduate academic assistantships. Please note that many graduate programs provide funding packages that are substantially greater than $18,000 per year. Please check with your prospective graduate program for specific details of the funding provided to its PhD students.

Scholarships & awards (merit-based funding)

All applicants are encouraged to review the awards listing to identify potential opportunities to fund their graduate education. The database lists merit-based scholarships and awards and allows for filtering by various criteria, such as domestic vs. international or degree level.

Teaching Assistantships (GTA)

Graduate programs may have Teaching Assistantships available for registered full-time graduate students. Full teaching assistantships involve 12 hours work per week in preparation, lecturing, or laboratory instruction although many graduate programs offer partial TA appointments at less than 12 hours per week. Teaching assistantship rates are set by collective bargaining between the University and the Teaching Assistants' Union.

Research Assistantships (GRA)

Many professors are able to provide Research Assistantships (GRA) from their research grants to support full-time graduate students studying under their direction. The duties usually constitute part of the student's graduate degree requirements. A Graduate Research Assistantship is a form of financial support for a period of graduate study and is, therefore, not covered by a collective agreement. Unlike other forms of fellowship support for graduate students, the amount of a GRA is neither fixed nor subject to a university-wide formula. The stipend amounts vary widely, and are dependent on the field of study and the type of research grant from which the assistantship is being funded. Some research projects also require targeted research assistance and thus hire graduate students on an hourly basis.

Financial aid (need-based funding)

Canadian and US applicants may qualify for governmental loans to finance their studies. Please review eligibility and types of loans.

All students may be able to access private sector or bank loans.

Foreign government scholarships

Many foreign governments provide support to their citizens in pursuing education abroad. International applicants should check the various governmental resources in their home country, such as the Department of Education, for available scholarships.

Working while studying

The possibility to pursue work to supplement income may depend on the demands the program has on students. It should be carefully weighed if work leads to prolonged program durations or whether work placements can be meaningfully embedded into a program.

International students enrolled as full-time students with a valid study permit can work on campus for unlimited hours and work off-campus for no more than 20 hours a week.

A good starting point to explore student jobs is the UBC Work Learn program or a Co-Op placement.

Tax credits and RRSP withdrawals

Students with taxable income in Canada may be able to claim federal or provincial tax credits.

Canadian residents with RRSP accounts may be able to use the Lifelong Learning Plan (LLP) which allows students to withdraw amounts from their registered retirement savings plan (RRSPs) to finance full-time training or education for themselves or their partner.

Please review Filing taxes in Canada on the student services website for more information.

Cost Calculator

Applicants have access to the cost calculator to develop a financial plan that takes into account various income sources and expenses.

Career Outcomes

20 students graduated between 2005 and 2013. Of these, career information was obtained for 18 alumni (based on research conducted between Feb-May 2016):


RI (Research-Intensive) Faculty: typically tenure-track faculty positions (equivalent of the North American Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor positions) in PhD-granting institutions
TI (Teaching-Intensive) Faculty: typically full-time faculty positions in colleges or in institutions not granting PhDs, and teaching faculty at PhD-granting institutions
Term Faculty: faculty in term appointments (e.g. sessional lecturers, visiting assistant professors, etc.)
Sample Employers in Higher Education
University of British Columbia (4)
University of Victoria
King Saud University
University of Northern British Columbia
University of Alberta
Nova Southeastern University
University of Pittsburgh
Thammasat University
Sample Employers Outside Higher Education
Family Dental Centres
Univision Communications Inc.
BC Cancer Agency
Cresta Dental
BC Academy of Medical Aesthetics and Skin Care Inc.
BC Government
Sample Job Titles Outside Higher Education
Dentist (2)
Clinician Scientist
Associate Dentist
Instructor
Policy Analyst
Director
PhD Career Outcome Survey
You may view the full report on career outcomes of UBC PhD graduates on outcomes.grad.ubc.ca.
Disclaimer
This program underwent a name or structural change in the study time frame, and all alumni from the previous program were included in these summaries. These data represent historical employment information and do not guarantee future employment prospects for graduates of this program. They are for informational purposes only. Data were collected through either alumni surveys or internet research.

Enrolment, Duration & Other Stats

These statistics show data for the Doctor of Philosophy in Craniofacial Science (PhD). Data are separated for each degree program combination. You may view data for other degree options in the respective program profile.

Enrolment Data

 20192018201720162015
Applications111412813
Offers44543
New registrations21532
Total enrolment151615108
Disclaimer
Admissions data refer to all UBC Vancouver applications, offers, new registrants for each year, May to April [data updated: 10 March 2020]. Enrolment data are based on March 1 snapshots.

Research Supervisors

This list shows faculty members with full supervisory privileges who are affiliated with this program. It is not a comprehensive list of all potential supervisors as faculty from other programs or faculty members without full supervisory privileges can request approvals to supervise graduate students in this program.

  • Aleksejuniene, Jolanta (Theory-based behavioural management, Evidence-based Practice, Caries risk assessment, ePortfolio learning, Oral Epidemiology)
  • Almeida, Fernanda (Sleep and Sleep Disorders, oral appliances for snoring and sleep apnea, sleep apnea, diagnosis, edentulism, craniofacial characteristics in sleep apnea)
  • Bromme, Dieter (Lysosomal proteases, centre for blood research )
  • Brondani, Mario (Community Health / Public Health, Dental Health, Social Determinants of Health, Health Policies, Quality of Life and Aging, Adult Education and Continuing Education, Epidemiology, Dental Public Health, Health Policy, Dental Education, Dental Geriatrics, Access to care, Qualitative research, Epidemiological data)
  • Bryant, S (Prosthodontics, Geriatrics, Patient-based assessments, Oral implants, Jawbone densitometry)
  • Carvalho, Rick (Biomaterials, Dental Materials)
  • Coil, Jeffrey Martin (Pulp Biology, Endodontic Materials)
  • Donnelly, Leeann (Oral Malodor, Special Care Populations, Community Oral Health Education and Program Development)
  • Ford, Nancy (Imaging, Biomedical Technologies, micro-computed tomography, physiological gating, models of respiratory disease, image-based measurements, dental imaging, x-ray imaging)
  • Haapasalo, Markus (Novel strategies to eradicate oral biofilms)
  • Hakkinen, Lari (Cell Therapy, Cell Signaling, Connective Tissue, Wound Healing, Tissue regeneration, Fibroblasts, MSC, Extracellular matrix, Cell to cell communication, Oral mucosa and skin)
  • Kim, Hugh (platelet biochemistry)
  • Lakschevitz, Flavia (links between periodontal disease and systemic conditions, soft and hard tissue regeneration, periodontal therapy (surgical and non-surgical), implants and site development procedures)
  • Larjava, Hannu (Wound healing)
  • Laronde, Denise (Oral cancer screening; risk prediction; access to care for oral health services; head and neck survivorship)
  • MacDonald, David (Systematic review, Diagnostic radiology, particularly of the Hong Kong Chinese)
  • Macdougall, Mary (molecular mechanisms associated with epithelial mesenchymal interactions, identification of critical signaling pathways, matrix formation and biomineralization)
  • Mathu-Muju, Kavita (Public Health Dentistry, Clinical Pediatric Dentistry)
  • Matthew, Ian (Dental Education, biomaterials; implantology)
  • Mostafa, Nesrine (Digital dentistry, tissue engineering options for bone regeneration)
  • Nguyen, Caroline (Cancer patient treatment and rehabilitation outcomes; oral side effects of treatments and medications in cancer patients and the elderly)
  • Overall, Christopher Mark (Blood research, antiviral immunity)
  • Pigozzo Manso, Adriana (Dental adhesive interfaces, Resin dentin bond stability, Color shade in resin composite)
  • Pliska, Benjamin (Sleep and Sleep Disorders, Oro-Dental Disorders, Facial growth and development, sleep medicine)
  • Poh, Catherine (Optical Techniques and oral precancer management)

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Doctoral Citations

A doctoral citation summarizes the nature of the independent research, provides a high-level overview of the study, states the significance of the work and says who will benefit from the findings in clear, non-specialized language, so that members of a lay audience will understand it.
Year Citation
2020 Dr. Bi investigated cell behavior in the regulation of periodontal disease. He found that a receptor molecule plays a central role in the regulation of periodontal inflammation and bone loss through transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. This research will impact treatment methods for periodontal diseases.
2019 Dr. Jessani studied the oral health needs and services of people living with HIV in British Columbia. His results identified three quarters of this population had unmet dental treatment needs, half of the respondents had not visited a dentist with in the last year and half had experienced some kind of discrimination by their oral health providers.
2018 Dr. Rock advanced the risk stratification of oral precancerous lesions by examining different associations between microscopic diagnosis, molecular features, risk habits, clinical lesion characteristics over time and progression to cancer. This research provides a new framework to integrate lesion change over time into risk models.
2018 Dr. Tarzemany studied the function of a protein that mediates cell communication in wound healing in skin and oral mucosa, and its relevance for scar formation. Findings from her project may be used to develop effective and predictable therapeutic modalities to prevent and treat scars.
2013 Dr. Stojicic studied bacteria that are the main cause of tooth decay, periodontal and root canal infections. Her research contributed to finding the most efficient way for killing bacteria and curing dental diseases. Research findings documented in her thesis will be of great benefit both for dental practitioners and patients, to keep teeth healthy.
2012 Dr. Wallace explored the expansion of community dental clinics in British Columbia, and their potential to respond to oral health inequities. He found that the clinics are helping to provide dentistry to underserved populations. However, the services are limited, and Dr. Wallace recommends government policy that integrates dentistry within health equity agendas.
2012 Dr. Donnelly explored the influence of oral health, body image, and social interactions of elders living in care facilities. Her findings expanded our understanding of how personal and environmental factors influence the social impact of oral conditions.
2012 Dr. Auluck studied human-papillo-maviral or HPV. He showed that incidence of HPV-related oral cancers have surpassed tobacco-related oral cancers among men in BC, particularly among South Asian men who chew tobacco. It is expected that this research will result in changes to screening methods, detection, treatment and management of oral cancers.
2011 Dr Xie studied the functions of a particular integrin in wound healing. She found that this integrin inhibited keratinocyte proliferation in the epidermis and hair follicles during wound repair possibly via the modulation of epidermal stem cell behavior. This study suggests a manipulation target in the functions of epidermal stem cells.
2010 Dr. Eslami researched the molecule alpha-V beta-6, a receptor that is expressed in some cells in a wound. It interacts with another molecule, transforming growth factor-beta, which plays several important roles during wound healing. Such an interaction may potentially determine whether a wound heals normally or produces scars.

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Further Program Information

Specialization

Craniofacial Science covers the following areas of study:

  • Research in Population Health explores the complex interactions (social, cultural, environmental) that affect the oral health of individuals, communities and populations.
  • Oral health related clinical research includes both interventional and observational studies focusing on the following: disease prevention, diagnosis, risk, treatment, prognosis and health care.
  • Basic science research in the areas of biomaterials, cell biology, developmental biology, microbiology and molecular biology is available.

Faculty Overview

Academic Unit

Program Identifier

VGDPHD-FT
 
 
 

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