End Pages

Notes, Footnotes, and Bibliography

You and your supervisor should decide on the form and location of footnotes and the presentation of the bibliography at an early stage in the writing of the thesis, following a style guide or style of a significant refereed journal in your field.

Notes and footnotes

Notes and footnotes must be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis.

Three possible locations:

  • at the bottom of pages
  • at the end of chapters
  • at the end of the main body of the text immediately preceding the bibliography

Bibliography/References/Works Cited

There must be only one bibliography/references/works cited in a thesis.

  • must start at the top of a page
  • must be listed in the table of contents
  • must not have a chapter number, as it is not a chapter

Note: If you have web links in your bibliography they must be functional, and you must include the date on which you retrieved the material from the Web. Exception: if the link is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), no retrieval information is needed.


Each appendix must start on a new page. The titles of the appendices must be included in the table of contents.

Examples of items often included as appendices:

  • Detailed methodologies
  • Details of experimental data
  • Diagrams of specialized equipment developed
  • Samples of surveys
  • Scholarly artifacts (e.g., film and other audio, visual, and graphic representations, and application-oriented documents such as policy briefs, curricula, business plans, computer and web applications, etc.) not included in the body of the thesis.

Important: You must black out or white out any signatures that may appear in  the appendices (and in the rest of the thesis), and remove any personal information.