Final Oral Defence

Purpose of the Final Oral Defence

  • To ensure that the Candidate is able to present and defend the dissertation and its underlying assumptions, methodology, results, and conclusions in a manner consistent with the doctoral degree being sought;
  • To communicate the results of the work to the campus community.

Structure of the Final Oral Defence

The detailed Final Oral Defence procedures are outlined in the Exam Instructions. A copy of these instructions is provided to the Examining Committee approximately one week before the Oral Defence.

The basic structure of the Oral Defence is:

  • Candidate makes a public presentation of the dissertation (maximum 30 minutes)
  • Examining Committee members question the Candidate
  • Members of the audience are invited to ask questions of the Candidate
  • Examining Committee holds an in-camera discussion where it decides on the overall recommendation it will make to Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (see Evaluation Protocol below)
  • Chair conveys the recommendations of the Examining Committee to the Candidate

Candidates are encouraged to arrive 30 minutes early to get comfortable and set-up in the exam room. Exams start promptly at the official start time. The doors to the exam room are closed at the start of the exam and no one may enter the exam room once the Final Oral Defence has begun. The Final Oral Defence usually takes two to two and a half hours.

Audiovisual Equipment

The examination rooms in the Graduate Student Centre come equipped with a projector and screen (room 200) or a large monitor and auxiliary and screen (room 203), a white board, and a podium. Most Candidates prefer to bring their own laptops to the examination; it is possible to use the wall mounted PC in either room, in which case Candidates should either have their presentations available on cloud storage or bring a thumb drive.

The displays in rooms 200 and 203 are equipped with VGA and HDMI inputs. Candidates using laptops without these outputs must bring the appropriate adaptors.

Candidates planning to use the Virtual Meeting Room to enable remote attendance should indicate their preference when making the Exam booking and choose room 203.

Language Requirement

Candidates for the Final Doctoral Examination must have fulfilled all course and/or language requirements of the degree program. It is the responsibility of the Candidate's graduate program to ensure these requirements have been met, and that the Candidate's oral language proficiency is adequate for full communication between the Examination Committee and the Candidate.

The Final Doctoral Examination is a public event at UBC and as such will be conducted in English. The Candidate's oral proficiency in the language of the examination must be adequate for full communication between the Examination Committee and the Candidate. For theses in language programs, some questions can be posed or answered in the language concerned, provided the Examination Committee can follow proceedings (by translation if necessary) in this other language.

Remote Attendance

Please note: the following rules for remote attendance refer to in-person exams prior to March 17, 2020. For information regarding the current arrangements for remote defences to comply with physical distancing protocols, see Schedulng the Oral Defence, and the Virtual Exam Protocol.

Managing remote attendees can pose both technological challenges and challenges for candidates in managing divided attention. For these reasons, only one remote attendee is permitted at any Defence.

Normally, only those individuals physically present in the examination room can be counted for quorum. It may be permissible for either the External Examiner or a third member of the Supervisory Committee to attend the defence remotely. To discuss this possibility, contact the Doctoral Exams office at least 4 weeks before the Oral Defence date.

Room 203 in the Graduate Student Centre is equipped for videoconferencing via the UBC Virtual Meeting Room (VMR). Candidates who wish to use the VMR should indicate this on their Booking Request, and choose room 203 as the venue.  

Alternatively, an Examining Committee member can attend via Skype or another web-based system, in which case, the Research Supervisor will be responsible for supplying the required equipment (for example, a computer with webcam and Skype account), managing the set-up of that equipment, and establishing the connection.

Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies has a telephone that will be made available for doctoral examinations in room 200 or 203 as a back up for any type of remote attendance.

Should any technological issues arise during the course of the exam, the exam will not normally be paused to resolve them. Only those examining committee members who have been present for the full duration of the exam can cast a vote in the proceedings. Losing the remote connection during the exam will mean that any remote attendees are not eligible to vote during the in camera session.

Please also note that the Examination Chair has the right to discontinue a remote connection if it is interfering with the proper conduct of the examination.

Remote attendance by audience members cannot be accommodated. This is because recording of the defence is not permitted; applications that allow remote attendance provide opportunities to record in ways that cannot currently be monitored or prevented.

Attendance of the External Examiner

The External Examiner's participation in a Candidate's Final Oral Defence offers the opportunity for a valuable dialogue about the dissertation and the research it presents. Therefore, the participation of the External Examiner in the Final Oral Defence is encouraged, but it is not required.

Inviting the External Examiner to participate in the Final Oral Defence is at the discretion of the Research Supervisor; Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies will not extend such an invitation. For information about inviting the External Examiner, please see Scheduling the Oral Defence.

Recording the Examination

See Recording the Examination.

Evaluation Protocol for the Oral Defence

The Examining Committee is asked to make an overall recommendation after evaluating two aspects of the Candidate's performance:

  • The Oral Defence: The Committee should evaluate the Candidate’s performance while presenting the synopsis, responding to questions, and defending the work. The Committee must decide whether or not the performance met the standard of excellence expected of a Doctoral Candidate at UBC.
  • The Dissertation: The Committee should evaluate the overall merit of the dissertation, considering scholarship, scope and impact of the contribution made, and the quality of writing. They are asked to take into consideration the External Examiner’s report, the assessments of the other Examining Committee members, and Candidate's responses to questions during the Oral Defence. The Committee will decide what revisions, if any, will be required before the dissertation can be considered fully acceptable.

Evaluation options available to the Examining Committee are:

  • The dissertation is satisfactory, provided suitable revisions are made (if required)
    • No revision or only minor revisions are required. The Committee charges the Research Supervisor to verify that the required changes have been made.
    • Substantive revisions are required. The Committee chooses two or more of its members, including the Research Supervisor, to verify that the required changes have been made.
  • The dissertation is unsatisfactory. Major rewriting and rethinking are required.
  • The dissertation is unacceptable; it is fundamentally flawed and therefore beyond revision.

The Examining Committee is then asked to select one of the following overall recommendations:

  • Pass. Pending final submission of the dissertation to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, the University should award the doctoral degree to this Candidate.
  • Re-examination required. The Candidate should be allowed a second attempt to pass the Final Doctoral Examination. (No more than one subsequent attempt is permitted.)
  • Fail. The University should not grant the doctoral degree to this Candidate.

In any category where the Committee's judgment is unanimous, or nearly so (in that at most one examiner dissents), the Chair will express it using the check-boxes on the Chair's Report form. Dissenting opinions will be noted in the text of the Chair’s report. In any category where two or more examiners disagree with the majority view, the Chair will select a box labelled “No Decision” and provide a written description of the differing views in the text of the report. If this occurs, the Chair will inform Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies as soon as possible (typically within one business day of the examination). The Dean of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies will review the Chair's Report and promptly determine an appropriate course of action, in consultation with the Examination Chair and the Examining Committee.

The Examination Chair is responsible for completing the Chair's Report form and submitting it to Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies within one week of the Oral Defence.


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