Relevant Degree Programs
Complete these steps before you reach out to a faculty member!
- Familiarize yourself with program requirements. You want to learn as much as possible from the information available to you before you reach out to a faculty member. Be sure to visit the graduate degree program listing and program-specific websites.
- Check whether the program requires you to seek commitment from a supervisor prior to submitting an application. For some programs this is an essential step while others match successful applicants with faculty members within the first year of study. This is either indicated in the program profile under "Admission Information & Requirements" - "Prepare Application" - "Supervision" or on the program website.
- Identify specific faculty members who are conducting research in your specific area of interest.
- Establish that your research interests align with the faculty member’s research interests.
- Read up on the faculty members in the program and the research being conducted in the department.
- Familiarize yourself with their work, read their recent publications and past theses/dissertations that they supervised. Be certain that their research is indeed what you are hoping to study.
- Compose an error-free and grammatically correct email addressed to your specifically targeted faculty member, and remember to use their correct titles.
- Do not send non-specific, mass emails to everyone in the department hoping for a match.
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- Include a brief outline of your academic background, why you are interested in working with the faculty member, and what experience you could bring to the department. The supervision enquiry form guides you with targeted questions. Ensure to craft compelling answers to these questions.
- Highlight your achievements and why you are a top student. Faculty members receive dozens of requests from prospective students and you may have less than 30 seconds to pique someone’s interest.
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- Convey the specific ways you are a good fit for the program.
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G+PS regularly provides virtual sessions that focus on admission requirements and procedures and tips how to improve your application.
Graduate Student Supervision
Master's Student Supervision
Theses completed in 2010 or later are listed below. Please note that there is a 6-12 month delay to add the latest theses.
Objective: Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) binds its ligand CSF1 and regulates the formation of osteoclasts. Mice nullizgyous for CSF1 (Csf1op/op) or CSF1R (Csf1r-/-) fail to erupt teeth due to defective osteoclast formation. Dental abnormalities have also been observed postnatally in the unerupted teeth of these mouse models. However, it is not understood if these dental abnormalities are caused by direct effects of CSF1R or defects in bone remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to identify a direct role of CSF1R in early tooth development.Methods: Immunostaining techniques were used to show CSF1R expression during early stages of odontogenesis. CSF1R was inhibited in utero during key odontogenic stages. Teeth from embryos and offspring were collected at different ages and studied for phenotypic abnormalities using histological techniques. Teeth from adult mice were analyzed using high-resolution micro-computed tomography.Results: CSF1R expression was found in ectomesenchymal tissues around normally developing incisors and molars. Osteoclasts had similar localization patterns. Prenatal CSF1R inhibition during odontogenesis led to significant dental abnormalities observed prenatally and postnatally due to altered bone remodeling. Ultimately, continuous tooth growth of mouse incisors postnatally was not impacted.Conclusion: These results indicate that CSF1R regulates tooth morphology during the bell stage, likely by remodeling the bony crypts at the tooth-bone interface.
BACKGROUND: Growth characteristics of the human craniofacial region during the fetal stages of development remain largely unexplored. This project investigates the growth of the human tongue, mandible and hyoid cartilage, during the early fetal stage, using a rare collection of preserved fetal head tissues. These structures differ in the tissue types that they are comprised of, however, they share common developmental origins. We hypothesized that the growth of these tissues exhibits a strong positive correlation during prenatal human life.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human fetal heads were obtained from elective terminations between nine and nineteen postconceptional weeks (n=16). They were contrast-enhanced with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and imaged with high-resolution micro-CT. Segmentation of the tongue, mandible, and hyoid cartilage was performed, three-dimensional models were constructed, and their volumes were calculated. To assess the relationship between the variables, correlations between different tissues were determined. Additionally, regression analyses were performed after normalization of data to permit comparisons between the different tissues. A single-rater interclass correlation coefficient was performed for 5 randomly selected samples, to study the measurement reliability.iiiRESULTS: PTA contrast enhancement provides excellent visualization and allows for accurate digital segmentation of hard and soft tissues of the craniofacial regions in the fetal head samples. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.96, 0.85, and 0.91 were calculated between the growth of the tongue – hyoid, tongue – mandible, and mandible-hyoid, respectively. The mandibular bone showed a similar growth trajectory as the tongue and the hyoid cartilage. However, the growth of the tongue was found to precede the mandibular growth, albeit slightly, at day 109.6 pc. Interclass correlation coefficient for all repeated measurements were > 0.9 with a P
Background: Prior to operative correction of a cleft lip, presurgical orthopaedics (PSO) with facial taping is used to improve pre-maxillary and soft tissue alignment. Two commercially available taping systems, Dynacleft and 3MTM taping are used at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3MTM and Dynacleft tape, for their ability to impact nasolabial shape during the treatment of the cleft lip deformity. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 93 cleft lip +/- palate patients (69 unilateral, 24 bilateral) that had received either Dynacleft or 3MTM facial taping was conducted. 3D stereophotogrammetry images were obtained at three time-points: prior to treatment, after receiving taping but prior to surgery and after surgical repair. 3D photos were annotated with landmarks on the nasolabial region using 3DMD Vultus software. The landmarks were then used in conventional morphometric analysis with previously validated facial measurements to describe and compare the two cohorts at each stage. Geometric morphometrics using Procrustes ANOVA analysis was also conducted to compare the nasolabial shape between the two taping groups. Unilateral cleft patients were additionally compared by their presenting cleft severity using both morphometric analyses to evaluate the impact of presenting severity on cleft outcomes. Results: Both taping devices demonstrated progressive improvement in multiple facial metrics after taping and after surgery. Although variability in the degree of improvement was noted in the evaluated facial metrics after pre-surgical orthopedics between the two taping groups, no differences were found between these metrics after surgery. ANOVA comparison of the nasolabial region after Procrustes analysis also found no significant difference between the two taping cohorts after surgical cleft lip repair (p-value =0.57). Unilateral cleft patients classified as severe at presentation had residual facial shape differences after lip repair compared to milder presenting clefts (p-value=0.005)Conclusions: PSO with facial taping reduces the cleft facial deformity prior to surgical correction across multiple facial measurements. However, both 3M and Dynacleft taping devices result in similar facial alignment post-operatively suggesting either can be successfully utilized and that differences prior to surgery have limited influence on the post-operative result.
Introduction: Growth of the facial skeleton is integrated to growth of the cranial base. This relationship is highlighted in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes in whom premature fusion of cranial base synchondroses, including the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS), is associated with severe midface deficiency. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between SOS fusion and craniofacial morphology in non-syndromic individuals – specifically midface projection and skeletal Class III phenotype. Methods: 250 pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography images were studied from a collection of orthodontic patients’ records, aged 5-11 years (M = 99, F = 151, average age = 8.77 years). SOS fusion was scored using a 6-stage SOS fusion scale utilizing InVivoDental (v6). 3D Slicer (v4.10.2) was used to place three-dimensional landmarks. Error analysis was performed by repeat landmarking of 12 volumes (mean error = 0.23 mm). X, Y, Z coordinates for landmarks were used to determine linear and angular craniofacial measurements. Geometric morphometric (GM) analyses were used to describe facial shape variation. Results: There is a large variation in SOS fusion stage, with older children tending to have a higher fusion stage than younger children. While SOS stage is correlated with subject age, no statistically significant relationships were noted in the age of SOS stages between the Skeletal Class I, II, and III groups for males or females. There were no statistically significant findings of SOS stage as it relates to age or the linear and angular craniofacial measurements in this study, except A Point – Nasion – B point angle being decreased in SOS stage 3 compared to SOS stage 2. The GM analyses suggests that SOS stage, sex, and skeletal class do correlate with craniofacial morphology. Conclusions: This data suggests that younger children with early fusion of the SOS may display a skeletal pattern which is similar to a skeletal Class III morphology. SOS stage is more closely correlated to facial morphology differences of increased mandibular length and transverse facial width. Maxillary projection is also found to be correlated with sex and skeletal class. Further investigation is needed to assess how fusion of the SOS may affect orthodontic and orthopedic treatments for midface deficiency.