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Graduate Student Supervision
Master's Student Supervision (2010 - 2021)
Better understanding of the impacts of new mobility services (NMS) is needed to inform evidence-based policy, but cities and researchers are hindered by a lack of access to detailed system data. Application Programming Interface (API) services can be a medium for real-time data sharing and have been used for data collection in the past. However, the literature lacks a systematic examination of the potential value of publicly-available API data for extracting policy-relevant information, specifically supply and demand, on NMS. This thesis is comprised of two main parts. The objectives of part 1 are to catalogue all the publicly-available API data streams for NMS in three major cities known as the Cascadia Corridor (Vancouver, British Columbia, Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon), to create, apply, and share web data extraction tools (Python scripts) for each API, and to assess the usefulness of the extracted data in quantifying supply and demand for each service. The objective of part 2 is to use the data extracted in part 1 to assess the equity performance of Uber’s wheelchair accessible service, UberWAV, by itself and in comparison to the standard Uber service, UberX. In part 2 the temporal and spatial distributions of the availability and accessibility of each service is investigated. Results of part 1 reveal some measures of supply and demand that can be extracted from API data and useful in future analysis. However, important information on supply and demand of most of the NMS in these cities cannot be obtained through API data extraction. Stronger open data policies for mobility services are therefore needed if policymakers want to obtain useful and independent insights on the usage of these services. Results of part 2 show that unlike UberX which is almost universally available, UberWAV is only available 60% of the time with an average wait time of 16 minutes on average (4 times that of UberX). The distributional analysis shows no inequitable distribution of availability or accessibility of UberWAV in Portland, Oregon with regards to income, and race. To make UberWAV more available and accessible, cities must enforce stronger licensing schemes to ridesourcing companies.
No abstract available.
With an increasing focus on bicycling as a mode of urban transportation, there is a pressing need for advanced tools for bicycle travel analysis and modeling. The objective of this thesis is to introduce “Biking schedules” to represent archetypal urban cycling dynamics along with its methods of construction and potential applications.Biking schedules are constructed by appending short trip segments, called microtrips, together. Three different methods of constructing biking schedules with both speed and road grade attributes are developed. As an initial proof-of-concept, the methods are applied and compared using a pre-existing demonstration data set of 55 hours of 1-Hz on-road GPS data from three cyclists. Biking schedules are evaluated based on their ability to represent the speed dynamics, power output, and breathing rates of a calibration data set and then validated for different riders. The impact of using coarser 3, 5, and 10 second GPS logging intervals on the accuracy of the schedules is also evaluated. Results indicate that the best biking schedule construction method depends on the volume and resolution of the calibration data set. Overall, biking schedules can successfully represent most of the assessed characteristics of cycling dynamics in the calibration data set within 5%. As a second step, the biking schedule construction methods are further developed and validated by collecting and applying a large, naturalistic, GPS-based data set of 2314 bicycle trips in Vancouver, Canada. We specifically explored the optimal microtrip definition to be adopted in constructing biking schedules. The choice of the optimal microtrip definition depends on the parameter that biking schedules are originally generated to model. Generally, the 150m microtrips generated the most precise biking schedules. The collected data are also used to compare the travel characteristics and construct biking schedules for regular and electric bikes. Results show that electric bikes travel 7 km/hr and accelerate 0.17 km/hr/sec faster than regular bicycles. Moreover, the total energy used to move electric bikes is almost twice as much as the energy used by regular bikes. These results have implications in designing bike lanes and safety analysis. Potential applications for biking schedules are also discussed.
Road grade is a major factor influencing cyclist physiology and travel decisions. Research studying cycling and other non-motorized transportation modes often use coarse elevation data sources to obtain the necessary grade information. In addition, routing applications such as Google Maps, Strava and RideWithGPS append the GPS data collected with elevation data from the coarse elevation datasets which can be inaccurate and inadequate. The objective of this research is to determine the best methods of obtaining road grade information on a network scale for bicycle travel analysis and to understand the limitations of the coarse data sources. Multiple elevation data sources, high resolution and coarse, are collected for the city of Vancouver, BC Canada. Different road grade estimation algorithms are then applied to the data sources at eight locations in the city where ground truth elevation data were surveyed using a total station. Different cycling performance measures were used to compare the elevation and road grade estimates of the locations to identify the data sources that accurately represent the true ground elevation for cycling analysis. Finally, the elevated structures in the City of Vancouver are characterized to help infer grade information in the absence of high resolution data sources.Results show that elevation data collected from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) are the most accurate for elevated and non-elevated roads with mean absolute error in the elevation not exceeding 0.6 meters. Additionally, road grades derived from LiDAR data sources were closest to measured grade data. In the absence of LiDAR, coarse data sources can provide adequate grade estimates for cycling analysis on non-elevated structures. However, on elevated structures, especially ones without a single dominant grade, coarse datasets can only provide estimates of total elevation change or mean grade. Overall, the results show that it is vital to understand the accuracy and limitations of elevation data sources used in analysis and modeling of active travel.
Urban cyclist’s physical characteristics are important for advanced modelling of bicycle speed and energy expenditure, with applications including infrastructure design, network analysis, and health and safety assessments. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. This study investigates the physical characteristics of real-world urban cyclists, including rolling and drag resistance parameters, and bicycle and cargo masses. Relationships among physical characteristics socio-demographics and travel behaviour are also analysed, and a bicycle cruising speed model is derived to illustrate usefulness of the sought parameters.Firstly, a 12-sensor, 100-meter coast-down test setup is developed and indoor and outdoor validation tests are performed. Outdoor validation tests generate rolling resistance coefficient estimates of 0.0064 ±0.0013 and effective frontal area estimates of 0.63 ±0.11 m².Secondly, resistance parameters were measured utilizing the novel coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada.. The average (standard deviation) of coefficient of rolling resistance (??), effective frontal area (????), bicycle plus cargo mass, and bicycle-only mass were 0.0077 (0.0036), 0.559 (0.170) m², 18.3 (4.1) kg, and 13.7 (3.3) kg, respectively. The range of measured values is wider and higher than suggested in the literature.Thirdly, the sample of intercepted cyclists is categorised based on observed physical attributes of the bicycle and rider. Three typologies defined through cluster analysis were identified as Road (R), Hybrid (H) and Mountain (M) style urban cyclists. The analysis indicates that cycling efficiency, perceptions, preferences, and habits are related to physical typology in a complex but consistent manner. M, H, and R cyclists are, in that order, increasingly more efficient, more comfortable in mixed traffic, moreIIconsistently year-round cyclists, self-reportedly faster, and engage in more physical activity. Physical typologies might help unveil new motivations in active travel behaviour and encourage urban cycling by a wider range of people.Finally, a mathematical framework is derived from first principles to determine speed from cyclist characteristics (power output, gearing, resistance parameters) and roadway attributes. Application of the speed estimation framework to the problem of traffic signal clearance interval timing illustrates the utility for probabilistic, context- sensitive roadway design.
- Microscopic modeling of cyclists on off-street paths: a stochastic imitation learning approach (2022)
Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, , 1--22
- Equity of access to Uber's wheelchair accessible service (2021)
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 89, 101688
- Modeling the impacts of electric bicycle purchase incentive program designs (2021)
Transportation Planning and Technology, 44 (7), 679--694
- A composite zonal index for biking attractiveness and safety (2020)
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 137
- Determining if walkability and bikeability indices reflect pedestrian and cyclist safety (2020)
Transportation Research Record, 2674 (9), 767-775
- Electric bicycle mode substitution for driving, public transit, conventional cycling, and walking (2020)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 85
- Marginal emission factors for public transit: Effects of urban scale and density (2020)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 88
- Perceived safety and experienced incidents between pedestrians and cyclists in a high-volume non-motorized shared space (2020)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 4
- What Can Publicly Available API Data Tell Us about Supply and Demand for New Mobility Services? (2020)
Transportation Research Record, 2674 (1), 178-187
- A utility-based bicycle speed choice model with time and energy factors (2019)
Transportation, 46 (3), 995--1009
- Characterization of bicycle following and overtaking maneuvers on cycling paths (2019)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 98, 139-151
- Comparison of marginal and average emission factors for passenger transportation modes (2019)
Applied Energy, 242, 1460-1466
- Industry Stakeholder Perspectives on the Adoption of Electric Bicycles in British Columbia (2019)
Transportation Research Record, 2673 (5), 1-11
- Road grade estimates for bicycle travel analysis on a street network (2019)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 104, 158-171
- Speed and road grade dynamics of urban trips on electric and conventional bicycles (2019)
Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, 7 (1), 1467--1480
- Appearance and behaviour: Are cyclist physical attributes reflective of their preferences and habits? (2018)
Travel Behaviour and Society, 13, 36--43
- Effects of new urban greenways on transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: A longitudinal study from Vancouver, Canada (2018)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 62, 715-725
- Generation of “Biking Schedules” for Bicycle Travel Analysis (2018)
Transportation Research Record, 2672 (36), 83-91
- Joint consideration of energy expenditure, air quality, and safety by cyclists (2018)
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 58, 652-664
- Motivation and implementation of traffic management strategies to reduce motor vehicle emissions in Canadian cities (2018)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 45 (4), 241-247
- Physical characteristics and resistance parameters of typical urban cyclists (2018)
Journal of Sports Sciences, 36 (20), 2383--2391
- Validation of an outdoor coast-down test to measure bicycle resistance parameters (2018)
Journal of Transportation Engineering Part A: Systems, 144 (7)
- Can traffic management strategies improve urban air quality? A review of the evidence (2017)
Journal of Transport and Health, 7, 111-124
- Context-sensitive, first-principles approach to bicycle speed estimation (2017)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 11 (7), 411-416
- Determination of active travel speed for minimum air pollution inhalation (2017)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11 (3), 221-229
- Existence and Use of Low-Pollution Route Options for Observed Bicycling Trips (2017)
Transportation Research Record, 2662 (1), 152-159
- Models for estimating zone-level bike kilometers traveled using bike network, land use, and road facility variables (2017)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 96, 14-28
- Utilizing shared parking to mitigate imbalanced supply in a dense urban neighborhood: Case study in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (2017)
Transportation Research Record, 2651 (1), 92-100
- Bicycle route preference and pollution inhalation dose: Comparing exposure and distance trade-offs (2016)
Journal of Transport and Health, 3 (1), 107-113
- Breath Biomarkers to Measure Uptake of Volatile Organic Compounds by Bicyclists (2016)
Environmental Science and Technology, 50 (10), 5357-5363
- Inside the industry: Calling all transportation innovators: Showcase your idea at the TRB six minute pitch (2016)
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers), 86 (10)
- Modeled effects of traffic fleet composition on the toxicity of volatile organic compound emissions (2016)
Transportation Research Record, 2570, 118-126
- Dynamic ventilation and power output of urban bicyclists (2015)
Transportation Research Record, 2520, 52-60
- Modeling the effects of congestion on fuel economy for advanced power train vehicles (2015)
Transportation Planning and Technology, 38 (2), 149-161
- Roadway determinants of bicyclist exposure to volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide (2015)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 41, 13-23
- Traffic congestion and air pollution exposure for motorists: Comparing exposure duration and intensity (2015)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 9 (7), 443-456
- Carbon Sponsoring: A New Idea in Personal Carbon Trading, Direct Carbon Offset Pledges for Travel (2014)
- Modeling impact of traffic conditions on variability of midblock roadside fine particulate matter (2014)
Transportation Research Record, 2428, 35-43
- Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution (2014)
Transport Reviews, 34 (2), 221-245
- Marginal costs of freeway traffic congestion with on-road pollution exposure externality (2013)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 57, 12-24
- Role of heavy-duty freight vehicles in reducing emissions on congested freeways with elastic travel demand functions (2013)
Transportation Research Record, (2340), 84-94
- Study of emissions benefits of commercial vehicle lane management strategies (2013)
Transportation Research Record, (2341), 43-52
- Congestion and emissions mitigation: A comparison of capacity, demand, and vehicle based strategies (2012)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 17 (7), 538-547
- Impacts of freeway traffic conditions on in-vehicle exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (2012)
Atmospheric Environment, 60, 495-503
- Impact of bicycle lane characteristics on exposure of bicyclists to traffic-related particulate matter (2011)
Transportation Research Record, (2247), 24-32
- The impacts of stochastic capacity on freeway traffic flow benefits and costs: A model and a case study from Portland, Oregon (2011)
2011 IEEE Forum on Integrated and Sustainable Transportation Systems, FISTS 2011, , 245-250
- Advanced traffic monitoring for sustainable traffic management: Experiences and results of five years of collaborative research in the Netherlands (2010)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 4 (4), 387-400
- Effects of temporal data aggregation on performance measures and other intelligent transportation systems applications (2010)
Transportation Research Record, (2160), 96-106
- Freeway sensor spacing and probe vehicle penetration: Impacts on travel time prediction and estimation accuracy (2010)
Transportation Research Record, (2178), 67-78
- Roadway barrier effects on cyclist and pedestrian exposure to ultrafine particles abstract #73 (2010)
15th IUAPPA World Clean Air Congress 2010, Presentations, 4, 2692-2718
- Roadway congestion's effects on motor vehicle CO2 emissions (2010)
15th IUAPPA World Clean Air Congress 2010, Presentations, 1, 303-320
- Traffic data for local emissions monitoring at a signalized intersection (2010)
IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, , 210-215
- Adding green performance metrics to a transportation data archive (2009)
Transportation Research Record, (2121), 30-40