Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD)
Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Foundations of Social Power Reasoning
In adults, intergroup biases, such as racial attitudes and gender stereotypes, have been clearly linked to biased behavior. However, attempts to change intergroup bias in adulthood have been relatively unsuccessful, leading researchers to consider whether bias change might be more effective earlier in development. Indeed, children as young as age three show evidence of intergroup bias, and by age six, children have often internalized the biased attitudes and stereotypes of their culture. The following dissertation further examines the development of intergroup bias in order to understand how best to target bias change in childhood. First, in a series of three studies, I test an alternative method of measuring children’s implicit gender stereotypes called the Preschool Auditory Stroop in order to disentangle the specific associations that underlie implicit bias. The first two studies validate the use of this method and indicate that children as young as age three have implicit gender associations about the attributes and toys associated with boys and girls. The third study indicates that this method may be less likely to detect bias than category-based measures like the Implicit Association Test. Next, across four samples, I examine the effect of preschool children’s beliefs about math and gender on their math-related performance. Results conducted on the combined dataset indicate that while only a small number of girls have stereotypes associating math with boys, these girls perform significantly worse on a test of Approximate Number System accuracy when it is framed as a math test rather than a game or an eyesight test. Finally, the last set of studies examine the efficacy of a counter-stereotypical exemplar exposure intervention to reduce bias across development. As compared to adults, 5 to 12-year-old children appear to require less explicit instruction to change their bias. Taken together, this work provides novel insights into the nuanced development of intergroup bias and the malleability of bias in childhood.
Previous research has suggested that infants exhibit a preference for familiar over unfamiliar social groups (e.g., preferring individuals from their own language group over individuals from a foreign language group). However, it is not clear whether such intergroup preferences are driven by positivity toward the familiar group and/or negativity toward the unfamiliar group. Using a novel habituation paradigm modeled conceptually after the Implicit Association Test, experiments 1-3 demonstrated that infants around 1-year of age positively evaluate the familiar language group, but do not negatively evaluate an unfamiliar language group. Experiments 4-5 addressed alternative interpretations of this core finding. Experiment 6 conceptually replicated Experiments 1-3, demonstrating that infants also expect members of the familiar language group (but not members of an unfamiliar group) to engage in prosocial behaviours. Together these data suggest that children’s early social group behaviours (e.g., toy choice, preferential looking) may be shaped by positive evaluations of familiar group(s), rather than negative evaluations of unfamiliar groups.
Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development and exerts a powerful influence on an individual's social preferences and behaviors across the lifespan. While interventions to change these biases (e.g., racial bias) have been successful in adults, the magnitude of change is still notably small. No studies thus far have investigated whether these biases might be more amenable to change at different periods in development. Two studies examined potential developmental differences in the malleability of implicit bias. The first study examined the formation and malleability of novel implicit attitudes and stereotypes among children ages 5-12. The second study examined the effectiveness of a specific intervention, exposure to counter-stereotypical exemplars, to reduce an existing implicit bias (race attitudes) among similarly aged children. Results indicated that for a novel implicit bias, there were no differences by age in the capacity to form and change implicit associations. In contrast, for an existing implicit bias, exposure to counter-stereotypical exemplars successfully reduced biases for children nine years-of-age and older, but not for younger children. Together, these findings suggest that while the capacity to form implicit associations remains fairly continuous across development, there are nonetheless notable developmental differences in the ability to change such associations. Several potential mechanisms underlying this developmental change will be discussed.