Curtis Berlinguette


Research Classification

Research Interests

CO2 conversion and utilization
clean energy
advanced solar cells
electrochromic windows
dynamic windows
hydrogen fuels production
robotics and automation
machine learning / artificial intelligence

Relevant Degree Programs


Research Methodology

electrolyzer technologies
solar cell fabrication
transient spectroscopy


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Graduate Student Supervision

Doctoral Student Supervision (Jan 2008 - Mar 2019)
Driving chemistry at photoelectrodes and electrodes (2019)

No abstract available.

Photodeposited functional thin films (2019)

The conversion of electrical energy derived from clean, renewable, and intermittent sources such as wind and solar into transportable and storable fuels is a means of matching energy supply and demand. Effective electrocatalysts can facilitate these conversions in an economical manner. Our group has developed photodeposition techniques for synthesizing amorphous thin-film metal oxide electrocatalysts. The thicknesses of amorphous metal oxide films were determined by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). XRF measurements recorded on the films provided a strong linear correlation with the thicknesses determined by cross-sectional SEM. The electrochemical surface area (ECSA) determined by double-layer capacitance measurements did not universally show a linear relationship with film thicknesses. These results highlight the limitations of using ECSA to determine electrocatalyst film thickness. The noninvasive XRF technique is demonstrated to be a superior method for reporting on the thickness and loadings of thin metal oxide films. XRF measurements were made on iron-nickel oxy/hydroxide (FeNiOx) films that are widely known to mediate the oxygen evolution reaction at modest current densities (10 mA cm-²). These measurements enabled the determination of the electrochemical stability and metal composition of these electrocatalyst films when subjected to sustained electrolysis in strong base at a current density J = 200 mA cm-². Most of the iron in the film was liberated during the first 24 h of electrolysis and deposited on the cathode. These results show that one must account for the instability of this mixed-metal composition when drawing structure-property relationships and when considering the scale-up of electrocatalysts.Finally, modifications to the photodeposition technique are demonstrated that enables access to metal and metal alloy thin films. Silver and copper are widely studied metals for catalyzing the CO₂ reduction reaction (CO₂RR), yet studies of Ag-Cu alloys are rare due to the immiscibility of the metals. I report that our photodeposition procedure provides access to Ag-Cu alloys at ambient pressures and temperatures. Our photodeposition procedure is shown to furnish metastable alloys with ~10 atomic weight % (at-%) copper incorporated into the silver lattice. These results provide proof that photodeposition can be used to access kinetic phases of alloys.

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Master's Student Supervision (2010-2017)
Interfacial halogen bonding boosts the photovoltage of the dye-sensitized solar cell (2016)

A series of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) compounds, differing only by the identity of two halogen atoms substituted on the triphenylamine (TPA, donor), were synthesized and characterized for insight into the regeneration reactions within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) [Dye-X⁺/TiO₂(e-) + I− → Dye-X/TiO₂ + I₂•−]. The structures of each series conformed to a molecular scaffold bearing a TPA donor, thiophene spacer, and acrylic acid unit as the anchoring group. In Chapter 2, each Dye-X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) was immobilized on a TiO₂ surface to investigate how the halogen substituents affect the reaction rate between the light-induced charge-separated state, TiO₂(e−)/Dye-X⁺, with iodide in solution. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed progressively faster reactivity towards nucleophilic iodide with more polarizable halogen substituents: Dye-F
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Amorphous electrocatalysts formed by near-infrared-driven decomposition (2015)

The splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen is widely viewed as the most sustainable option for storing energy produced by intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. Economically feasible large-scale deployment of this type of system requires the discovery of efficient electrocatalysts, particularly for the kinetically slow oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Transition metal oxides are the most durable and active water oxidation catalysts, and there is a growing body of evidence showing amorphous metal oxide films mediate the OER more efficiently than the crystalline phases of the same compositions. Notwithstanding, there is a limited set of fabrication methods available for making amorphous films, particularly in the absence of a conducting substrate. I introduce herein a scalable preparative method for accessing oxidized and reduced phases of amorphous films that involves the efficient decomposition of molecular precursors, including simple metal salts, by exposure to near-infrared (NIR) radiation. The NIR-driven decomposition process provides sufficient localized heating to trigger the liberation of the ligand from solution-deposited precursors on substrates, but insufficient thermal energy to form crystalline phases. This method provides access to state-of-the-art electrocatalyst films, as demonstrated herein for the electrolysis of water, and extends the scope of usable substrates to include non-conducting and temperature-sensitive platforms. Because crystalline ruthenium oxide is one of the most efficient electrocatalysts in acidic media, it would be highly advantageous to be able to readily access the amorphous phase of the material. I also document two facile preparation techniques for accessing amorphous ruthenium oxide, a state-of-the-art electrocatalyst. The formation of amorphous ruthenium oxide films is triggered by the decomposition of a film of spin-cast molecular ruthenium precursors on conducting glass by either ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) light.

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Controlling electron transfer at sensitized TiO₂ surfaces (2015)

A series of three bis-tridentate ruthenium(II) complexes containing one cyclometalating ligand with terminal triphenylamine (TPA) substituents have been synthesized and characterized for insight into electron transfer reactions at TiO₂ surfaces. The structure of each complex conforms to a molecular scaffold formulated as [Ru(II)(TPA-2,5-thiophene-pbpy)(H₃tctpy)] (pbpy = 6-phenyl-2,2’-bipyridine; H₃tctpy = 4,4’,4”-tricarboxy-2,2’:6’,2”-terpyridine), where an electron-donating group (EDG) or an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) is installed about the anionic ring of the pbpy ligand and methyl groups surrounding the TPA-thiophene bridge. Modification of the anionic ring of the pbpy chelated with EDGs and EWGs enables the modulation of the Ru(III)/Ru(II) redox potential over 140 mV. This property offers the opportunity to turn on and off intramolecular hole transfer. Pulsed light laser excitation of the sensitized thin film resulted in rapid excited state injection and in some cases hole transfer to TPA [TiO₂(e⁻)/Ru(III)−TPA → TiO₂(e⁻)/Ru(II)−TPA・⁺. The rate constants for charge recombination of [TiO₂(e⁻)/Ru(III)−TPA → TiO₂/Ru(II)−TPA and TiO₂(e⁻)/Ru(II)−TPA・⁺ → TiO₂/Ru(II)−TPA] were drastically affected by modification of the bridging unit and can be modulated over 5.2 – 6.2×10⁵ s ⁻¹ and 1.7 – 5.1×10⁴ s⁻¹ respectively.

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Recent Tri-Agency Grants

The following is a selection of grants for which the faculty member was principal investigator or co-investigator. Currently, the list only covers Canadian Tri-Agency grants from years 2013/14-2016/17 and excludes grants from any other agencies.

  • 400MHZ BROADBAND INVERSE DETECTION NMR SPECTROMETER - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Research Tools and Instruments (2016/2017)
  • Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectrometer - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Research Tools and Instruments (2016/2017)
  • Bringing big data to clean energy materials discovery - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Collaborative Research and Development Grants - Project (2016/2017)
  • Photodeposition of fuel cell components - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Engage Grants Program (2016/2017)
  • 2016 EWR Steacie Memorial Fellowship - Supplement - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - EWR Steacie Fellowship (2016/2017)
  • Powder X-Ray Diffractometer Tailored for Thin Film Measurements - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (2015/2016)
  • Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) equipped with IR detector (STA-IR) - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (2015/2016)
  • Enhancing corrosion resistance superheater alloys - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Engage Grants Program (2015/2016)
  • Photoactive materials for dynamic food production II - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Engage Plus Grants (2015/2016)
  • Conformal metal oxide films for anticorrosion applications - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Engage Grants Program (2014/2015)
  • UBC Chemistry X-ray Diffractometer Upgrade - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (2014/2015)
  • Photoactive materials for dynamic food production - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Engage Grants Program (2014/2015)
  • Canada Research Chair in Solar Energy Conversion for Dr. Curtis Berlinguette - Canada Research Chairs - Canada Research Chair Tier II (NSERC) (2014/2015)
  • Catalyst development for clean hydrogen production - Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems (MITACS) - Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) - (2014/2015)
  • Upgrade to UBC-chemistry departmental nmr facility - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (2013/2014)
  • An aim at commercialization of the dye cell - Project 7B - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Strategic Network Grant (2013/2014)
  • NEXT Hydrogen/Berlinguette Group: Electrolyzer Electrode Development - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Engage Grants Program (2013/2014)
  • Molecular strategies for converting and storing solar energy - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Discovery Grants Program - Individual (2013/2014)
  • CREATE sustainable synthesis - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Collaborative Research and Training Experience (CREATE) Program (2013/2014)


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