Patrick Moore

Associate Professor

Relevant Degree Programs

 

Graduate Student Supervision

Doctoral Student Supervision (Jan 2008 - May 2019)
"The land grows people" : indigenous knowledge and social repairing in rural post-conflict Northern Uganda (2016)

This dissertation examines how individuals and communities “move on” after two decades of war and mass internal displacement in rural Acoliland, Northern Uganda (~1986-2008). Based upon fieldwork from 2004 to 2012, it explores the multi-generational angst regarding youth’s disconnection from, or disinterest in, tekwaro (Acoli indigenous knowledge) in the conflict and post-conflict years. Attending to the ways that everyday inter-generational practices engendered by a return to the land activate a range of social relationships and engagements with tekwaro, I assert that these interactions re-gather different generations in the rebuilding of social, political, and moral community. I first re-narrate the history of one rural sub-clan, and explore how ngom kwaro (ancestral land) is their prime idiom of relatedness. Detailing experiences of displacement during the recent war, I acknowledge the tic Acoli (livelihood work) necessary for survival upon their return to the land as a vital framework for inter-generational engagement. I then consider adults’ and elders’ preoccupation with the decline of woro (respect) and cuna (‘courtship’ processes) within the IDP (internally displaced persons’) camps. Exploring how cuna affects relations and their organization, I examine contemporary cuna processes as important frameworks for inter-generational interaction. I finally consider how the responsibilities and relationships activated through kin-based communal governance organizations (sub-clans, lineages) are key to understanding both tekwaro and relatedness, and examine the creation of one sub-clan’s written constitution as another significant framework for inter-generational negotiation, participation, and engagement. I emphasize that these engagements with tekwaro work to elaborate and re-elaborate relatedness, and thus serve as important practices of social repairing, grounded by communal stewardship of the land. Rather than addressing specific transgressive violences experienced during the war years, the results of this research suggest that social repair–the striving for the restoration of sociality–implicitly concerns resistance of the seeping, inscribing, relational effects of those violences. Rather, a return to the land, and the system of land tenure itself, provokes inter-generational participation that serves to make and remake relatedness, orienting social relations away from the fragmenting, unprecedented, Acoli-on Acoli violence (Oloya 2013) experienced during the years of war and displacement.

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Indigenous perspectives on the outstanding land issue in British Columbia : "we deny their right to it" (2016)

Arising from and sustained within the context of colonialism, the outstanding indigenous land issue in British Columbia has long been a source of significant conflict between indigenous people and settler governments. Due to its significantly complex political and legal background, it is difficult to reach a clear and comprehensive understanding about this matter, and gaining insight into the indigenous perspective about it is even more challenging. Explicitly considering the broader framework of colonialism in exploring the outstanding indigenous land issue in British Columbia, this dissertation places its focus upon detailing the indigenous perspective in relation to opposing political and legal government positions. Such a study is important in order to adequately understand the perpetuation of the conflicts between indigenous peoples and governments over the outstanding land issue. The research approach relies upon the examination of archival data, along with representations of indigenous oral history narratives, and attendance at indigenous political gatherings. In particular, this research project relies upon information gathered from both indigenous elders and political representatives through interviews and political meetings to form the basis of indigenous perspectives on the outstanding land issue. The findings from this research provide evidence that a discernible pattern of denial and disregard has been established and maintained by successive settler governments and that these patterns are purposefully perpetuated. The political, legal, and regulatory systems devised for power and control over indigenous peoples have effectively shaped the ‘taken for granted assumptions’ of the outstanding land issue. Indigenous perspectives on the ownership of their territories have been consistently maintained through oral history narratives over several generations. The central contribution that can be drawn from this research rests upon the revelation of how indigenous perspectives on the outstanding land issue were actively and continuously suppressed as part of the dispossession process. The significant findings include an in-depth disclosure of how purposeful political and legal procedures accompanied by expansive regulatory mechanisms have served to control how the outstanding indigenous land issue in British Columbia has been actively shaped, understood, and maintained over time through deliberate processes and procedures of colonialism.

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The substance of self-determination : language, culture, archives and sovereignty (2015)

Everyday communication in minority languages continues to experience decline around the world, even given efforts to reverse these processes. As language shift progresses the products of language documentation, including the oral histories and the unique cultural information they contain, become increasingly important. Archives are commonly used to store these resources, but the design and functionality of archives often fails to address language community interests in protecting their capacity for self-determination and other core cultural beliefs. I find that most existing language archives examples lack sufficient controls to maintain culturally based sharing protocols, enable contextualization of resources, provide opportunities for local collaboration and support educational dissemination. Lack of capacity to manage use of and access to language resources in an archive can contribute to an erosion of sovereignty for the language community. Partially in response to the cultural incongruence of existing archive options, community-based and participatory archives are on the rise. In this dissertation I critically evaluate the capacity of endangered language archives to operate in concert cultural beliefs, including the maintenance of sovereignty and demonstration of indigeneity. The identification of language ideologies is a useful lens to determine the cultural compatibility of archives and their practices. I present research with people from Indigenous communities in Washington State, Alaska and California. In addition, I describe interviews with managers and directors from international language archives and small community based ones. My research makes use of the Mukurtu CMS archive platform to both test this tool and its applicability for language preservation. Control of language resources enables tribes to reassert their capacity for cultural resource management as part of their self-determination.

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Repatriation, digital technology, and culture in a northern Athapaskan community (2010)

Many Canadian First Nations and Aboriginal organizations are using digital media to revitalize their languages and assert control over the representation of their cultures. At the same time, museums and academic institutions are digitizing their ethnographic collections to make them accessible to originating communities. As the use of digital media becomes standard practice both in the production of ethnographic objects and the “virtual repatriation” of cultural heritage, new questions are being raised regarding copyright, intellectual property, ownership, and control of documentation in digital form. In this dissertation, based on collaborative ethnographic multimedia production work with the Doig River First Nation (Dane-ẕaa) in northeastern British Columbia, I follow the transformation of intangible cultural expression into digital cultural heritage, and its return in the form of a digital archive to Dane-ẕaa communities. I explore how new access to digitized ethnographic documentation has facilitated local media production, and argue that these productions are acts of remediation of digital cultural heritage that resignify the products of ethnographic research in Dane-ẕaa communities. Through the lens of the collaborative production of the Virtual Museum of Canada exhibit Dane Wajich–Dane-ẕaa Stories and Songs: Dreamers and the Land, I show how local control over efforts to safeguard intangible heritage resulted in the implementation of a documentary methodology that modeled the appropriate transmission of culture in Dane-ẕaa social practice. The participatory production process of the virtual exhibit also facilitated expressions of Dane-ẕaa intellectual property rights to cultural heritage. Using the example of the digitization of photographs of early twentieth-century Dane-ẕaa nááchę (dreamers’) drums, and the community’s subsequent decision to remove them from the virtual museum exhibit, I explore how new articulations of Dane-ẕaa rights to control the circulation and representation of their digital cultural heritage are guided by knowledge of Dane-ẕaa nááchę, traditional protocols for the handling and care of material culture, and by contemporary political concerns and subjectivities.

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Master's Student Supervision (2010 - 2018)
Connection, collaboration and community : reflections on the use of videoconferencing in Kaska language documentation, revitalization and education (2018)

This thesis addresses how stakeholders of Kaska, a Dene Athabaskan language spoken in northeastern British Columbia and the southeastern Yukon, have incorporated videoconferencing technology into their long-distance language documentation, revitalization and education practices. Many speakers and communities of endangered, Indigenous, and minority languages who live in remote regions are at a disadvantage simply because of their remoteness, which has limited their ability to access funding, form partnerships and work with language researchers. In turn, historically such Indigenous languages — their speakers, their stakeholders and their projects — have been under-resourced. This thesis discusses how a team of Kaska language workers have used a professional videoconferencing platform to regularly engage in long-distance collaborative language projects between Watson Lake, Yukon, and Vancouver, British Columbia. While language projects often focus either on documentation or revitalization of a language, in these videoconferencing sessions project collaborators are able to integrate these two activities. The incorporation of this technology in their language work has had several positive by-products for project collaborators, including strengthened personal relationships, a heightened sense of connectedness to language, land and each other, and an interdependence on each other that also distributes authority, all of which have formed a community of practice that has made this language team into invested collaborators. Ultimately, this research suggests that in certain circumstances, videoconferencing technology can be used to support language documentation, revitalization and education, as well as the people who undertake such projects, in a myriad of ways that extends beyond the intended outputs of the projects themselves.

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The Kaska Dene: A study of colonialism, trauma, and healing in Dene Keyeh (2014)

No abstract available.

Analysing the eye with a view to the past : exploring image and imagination in 19th century Northwest coast diaries (2013)

This paper explores how “History” is represented within the diaries of the 19th century Northwest Coast translator Arthur Wellington Clah. Through exploring and deconstructing the language used to compose the diaries, this paper demonstrates how a new methodology can be employed for the purpose of understanding how a representation of the world can be reconstructed. Through understanding the “grammar of experience” this work attempts to uncover the structuring principles used to give order to the world. This analysis shows how representation can be translated into the visual field, with events within the written text being decomposed into images whose “meaning” and structure can be described in terms of elements within an artistic composition. This work looks at how an indigenous diarist of the Tsimshian people in British Columbia develops and represents his own sense of what “History” is, through hybridising two systems of ordering reality. This paper shall explore the ways in which different structuring principles interact and shape the vision of the world and go on to shape the represented world within the text.

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A poetic defiance : the birth of women’s poetry in Iran (2012)

This thesis examines the concept of “motherhood” in the works of renowned Iranian poet Parvin E’tesami (1907-1941). E’tesami’s poetry bequeaths inspiration to Iranian women who search and have searched for the possibilities of revealing their true selves in the face of oppressive cultural practices and political machinations. E’tesami was one of the first poets in the recent history of Iran to advocate an equal and empowered place for women. Through the concept of “motherhood,” she probed female identity, emphasizing and endorsing women’s fostering position, maternal instincts and unique nurturing capabilities. E’tesami expanded the consciousness of a vast number of Iranians by illuminating the roles of women in the political, social and religious spheres. She depicted the female essence through biology and natural characteristics, but at the same time her verse embraced the seemingly contrasting idea of the social construction of women. The notion of “motherhood” in E’tesami’s poems offers Iranian women the foundation for a common voice or a collective goal, but also stimulates the inward—individualized—revitalization of the autonomous self for each reader based on personal beliefs and aspirations. By reconstructing the normative practices of motherhood, E’tesami’s poems generate awareness that helps redraw female consciousness and thereby initiate agency, helping women become agents of resistance who challenge the dominating powers. E’tesami produced a poetic language that is personal and realistic, juxtaposing the uproar of an artist with the anguish of Iranian women. This humanist and feminist approach to poetry introduces readers to liberal themes that challenge social and religious ideals through direct and specific examples of mothers’/women’s positions in Iran.

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Probing the concept of language vitality : the state of titular languages in the national republics of Russia (2010)

This essay seeks to examine vitality of ‘titular languages,’ that is, languages of ‘titular nations,’ in the national republics constituting autonomous units of the Russian Federation. An attempt to map the vitality of languages indigenous to titular nations of Russia is made in order to identify major emerging trend(s) in the use of autochthonous languages. I hypothesize that the years of Soviet rule that promoted the Russian language as the lingua franca throughout the territory of the Soviet Union could not leave the vitality of languages of titular nations unaffected. I suggest that there exists a peculiar relationship between institutions and language vitality in the national republics of the Russian Federation. Political institutions, thus, are an independent variable in this study and language vitality is the dependent variable. The relationship between the two is contingent on the intervening variable of the demographic composition of the republics. I argue that de facto Russification affects the vitality of the languages indigenous to titular nations depending on the demographic composition of the republic, while de jure recognition of the titular languages by the state and the republics’ constitutions in present-day Russia may not imply fundamental changes in their overall strength. Apart from in the field of linguistics, language vitality is a fairly new concept and has not been extensively explored in the political science literature. Therefore, I will begin by analyzing theories from different disciplines to build a definition of language vitality and how it will be ‘measured’ for the purposes of this paper. In the second section of the paper I will introduce the major trajectories of the Soviet language policy, which subsequently flow into the language policy of contemporary Russia. I will conclude the theoretical section by emphasizing the importance of language vitality for theories of ethnicity and nationalism in political science. The paper relies on the 1979, 1989, and 2002 census data and uses descriptive statistical and linear regression analysis.

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A poetic defiance : the birth of women’s poetry in Iran (2012)

This thesis examines the concept of “motherhood” in the works of renowned Iranian poet Parvin E’tesami (1907-1941). E’tesami’s poetry bequeaths inspiration to Iranian women who search and have searched for the possibilities of revealing their true selves in the face of oppressive cultural practices and political machinations. E’tesami was one of the first poets in the recent history of Iran to advocate an equal and empowered place for women. Through the concept of “motherhood,” she probed female identity, emphasizing and endorsing women’s fostering position, maternal instincts and unique nurturing capabilities. E’tesami expanded the consciousness of a vast number of Iranians by illuminating the roles of women in the political, social and religious spheres. She depicted the female essence through biology and natural characteristics, but at the same time her verse embraced the seemingly contrasting idea of the social construction of women. The notion of “motherhood” in E’tesami’s poems offers Iranian women the foundation for a common voice or a collective goal, but also stimulates the inward—individualized—revitalization of the autonomous self for each reader based on personal beliefs and aspirations. By reconstructing the normative practices of motherhood, E’tesami’s poems generate awareness that helps redraw female consciousness and thereby initiate agency, helping women become agents of resistance who challenge the dominating powers. E’tesami produced a poetic language that is personal and realistic, juxtaposing the uproar of an artist with the anguish of Iranian women. This humanist and feminist approach to poetry introduces readers to liberal themes that challenge social and religious ideals through direct and specific examples of mothers’/women’s positions in Iran.

View record

Probing the concept of language vitality : the state of titular languages in the national republics of Russia (2010)

This essay seeks to examine vitality of ‘titular languages,’ that is, languages of ‘titular nations,’ in the national republics constituting autonomous units of the Russian Federation. An attempt to map the vitality of languages indigenous to titular nations of Russia is made in order to identify major emerging trend(s) in the use of autochthonous languages. I hypothesize that the years of Soviet rule that promoted the Russian language as the lingua franca throughout the territory of the Soviet Union could not leave the vitality of languages of titular nations unaffected. I suggest that there exists a peculiar relationship between institutions and language vitality in the national republics of the Russian Federation. Political institutions, thus, are an independent variable in this study and language vitality is the dependent variable. The relationship between the two is contingent on the intervening variable of the demographic composition of the republics. I argue that de facto Russification affects the vitality of the languages indigenous to titular nations depending on the demographic composition of the republic, while de jure recognition of the titular languages by the state and the republics’ constitutions in present-day Russia may not imply fundamental changes in their overall strength. Apart from in the field of linguistics, language vitality is a fairly new concept and has not been extensively explored in the political science literature. Therefore, I will begin by analyzing theories from different disciplines to build a definition of language vitality and how it will be ‘measured’ for the purposes of this paper. In the second section of the paper I will introduce the major trajectories of the Soviet language policy, which subsequently flow into the language policy of contemporary Russia. I will conclude the theoretical section by emphasizing the importance of language vitality for theories of ethnicity and nationalism in political science. The paper relies on the 1979, 1989, and 2002 census data and uses descriptive statistical and linear regression analysis.

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