Doctor of Philosophy in Interdisciplinary Studies (PhD)
Higher Education influence on Immigration Policy in Canada
My dissertation consists of three distinct yet interrelated studies. Its purpose is to extend research and theory on inequality by investigating three educational outcomes: non-standard employment, workplace task discretion, and intrinsic and extrinsic educational beliefs. As a body of work, my research generates insight into how the level and type of educational attainment affect divergent life course pathways. The first study examines gender inequality in early career part-time and temporary employment in Canada. Through two types of decomposition analyses, I research non-standard employment across four cohorts graduating between 1990 and 2010, studying the extent to which gender stratification within fields of study or systemic employment inequality contribute to dissimilar outcomes. I find that rates of non-standard employment vary substantially across disciplines. Furthermore, the over and under-representation of women in certain fields is a main factor explaining gender differences in temporary employment but cannot fully account for disparities in part-time employment. The second study researches the relationship between education and workplace task discretion in 30 countries. Through regression and decomposition analyses, I examine the direct association between education and task discretion and the extent to which skill and occupational sector function as mediators. I compare individual-agency and critical-institutional theoretical perspectives as explanations for direct and indirect associations. My findings mainly support critical-institutional accounts and yield evidence of a relative relationship between education and task discretion. That is, in contexts where task discretion is higher overall and more equal among occupations, education, skill, and occupational sector are less significant mechanisms of stratification. The third study considers how intrinsic and extrinsic educational beliefs change over adulthood. My research is based on a longitudinal study that repeatedly surveyed the same graduating British Columbia high school cohort over 28 years. Through hierarchical growth modelling, I contrast demographic and experience-based explanations to consider the influence of social origin and individual education and employment participation over time. The findings suggest that both life course experiences and social position have an influence on initial educational beliefs in early adulthood and the rate of change over time. Additionally, educational beliefs are more variable in early adulthood and become more stable later in participants’ life courses.
This study examined the structural development since 1960 of the entire postsecondary education system – that is, post-compulsory, formal education for adults – in Canada’s westernmost province, British Columbia. I synthesized changes across teaching and research universities, public colleges, private career colleges, apprenticeship, faith-based institutions, Aboriginal-governed institutions, and continuing education activities. My focus was on sectors, not individual institutions, and I considered the consequences of federal government actions along with those of the provincial government.I divided the era into three periods, from which I analyzed five significant historical moments. After considering the proximate causes of changes during these moments, I assessed the extent to which developments in each moment were consistent with three enduring public policy rationales for postsecondary education in British Columbia.The first policy rationale concerned a set of concepts about fairness that emerged cumulatively to constitute a fulsome understanding of social justice: access to educational opportunity for individuals, compensatory justice, cultural recognition and promotion, and spatial adaptation. The second propelling rationale, economic in nature, emerged from the literature on human capital formation and found expression in both generic and occupationally-specific forms. The third rationale concerned a means perceived to foster effective and efficient educational administration, namely a neoliberal, market-oriented approach that I explicated using some concepts from institutional theory and new public management.All three policy rationales proved helpful in interpreting the historical record, but none was present in all five historical moments. I commented about aspects of these policy rationales that might be useful to consider regarding future postsecondary development. I also made two observations, one about historical themes and the other about the language used to describe postsecondary education, that are relevant regardless of the approach taken when examining the postsecondary history of British Columbia. I offered recommendations concerning the social stratification implications of a growing vertical differentiation among institutions, the role of continuing education, information about the private sectors, a more current usage of human capital theory, attention to sub-baccalaureate education, the implications of international enrolment, open data, terminology, and systems thinking.
Higher education is essential for Cambodia’s human, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet, it is ineffective and inefficient. Improving higher education, especially making it more responsive to the needs for human resources, is one of the gravest and most urgent reforms Cambodia needs to undertake. This study aimed to explore options to help Cambodia improve in this area. To achieve this objective, the study incorporated the qualitative research methods of document review and stakeholder interviews as a means of collecting and analysing data. A document review of statistics, technical reports, policy papers, and academic literature sources obtained from both local and international institutions was conducted throughout the research project. During July and August 2014, semi-structured interviews with 18 Cambodian participants were conducted to obtain their perspectives about Cambodian higher education development and challenges. These participants were purposively selected from various backgrounds and included students, parents, faculty, university administrators, higher education officers/expert, employers, and non-governmental staff member. In keeping with the research purpose, three questions were deployed to guide the study: (a) What are the challenges facing higher education in Cambodia? (b) What lessons can Cambodia learn from policy and practice reforms in developing countries and how can these lessons inform higher education policy development in Cambodia? and (c) What do key stakeholders see as issues and directions for Cambodian higher education? Overall, the findings indicated that, despite rapid development and growth after the introduction of private higher education in the mid-1990s, Cambodia’s higher education subsector still faces many overarching challenges that need to be addressed to ensure greater effectiveness and efficiencies. This study points out those problems. Also, it suggests some key changes that higher education institutions and the Cambodian government need to make to correct the mismatch between higher education and labour market demand. The directions proposed in this study are expected to provide policymakers in Cambodia (and hopefully elsewhere) with a foundation for their future higher education policy discussions and debates.
There is a general consensus that the first year of university offers significant challenges, as new students not only adjust to the academic rigor of post-secondary schooling, but also to new social and cultural milieus. Thus, emotional intelligencethe ability to identify, process and manage emotions to affect positive behaviourmust play an important role during this transitional year, but how so? This mixed methods study was designed to answer that question by thoroughly investigating the connections between emotional intelligence (EI) and the first year experiences of students at a Canadian university. To do so, the EI of first year students, as measured by the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), was assessed at the beginning of their studies and at the end of their first year during the 2010-2011 academic year at Thompson Rivers University. Quantitative and qualitative indicators of performance, engagement, experiences, and potential associations were examined, as were changes in EI and gender effects. The findings from this study suggest there is a complicated connection between emotional intelligence and first year experiences of students. Although students felt EI played an important role, the findings revealed no significant correlations between EI and academic achievement, and very few significant associations between EI and students’ nonacademic experiences in first year. However, there was a strong connection between first year experiences and changes in emotional intelligence, as most EI mean scores increased, many significantly, from the pre to the post assessment. Finally, the EI scores of male students differed from those of female students in some facets that appeared to influence engagement, but not academic performance.
No abstract available.
Several studies have suggested that extracurricular activity participation provides children with numerous benefits including higher academic achievement. Unfortunately, participation differences among Canadian children mean that not all children have equal access to these benefits. Understanding the role parents play in their children’s extracurricular activity participation will broaden understandings of participation differences among Canadian children and thus, will have important implications for mitigating inequality in the Canadian public school system. This study asks the following: what role do the beliefs, experiences, and education of parents play in determining whether their children participate in specialized athletics, music, language and leadership programs? Data used in this study were from the Paths on Life’s Way project at UBC; a longitudinal study of the graduating class of 1988 in British Columbia, Canada. Data were collected using postal surveys and face-to-face interviews. A mixed method approach utilizing sequential analysis procedures was employed. Interview data was used to guide the analysis of the survey data. Results suggest that both parental experience and parental beliefs play a role in school-age children’s participation in specialized athletics, music, language, and leadership programs to varying extents. Parents’ activity-specific beliefs are a particularly important determinant of children’s participation in extracurricular activities. Parental experience with extracurricular activities during high school are more significantly correlated with children’s extracurricular activity participation than current experiences, this highlights both the important role played by habitus and the complexity of the transfer of cultural capital between parents and their children. These relationships are stronger for parents with lower levels of educational attainment in nearly all cases except that of children’s participation in specialized language programs.
The purpose of this research was to explore how women put into practice their understanding of healthful eating when purchasing food. The primary research question was:How do women think about health, health risk and food in their grocery store point-of-purchase food selections? The food choice process is highly complex and understanding women's healthy food selections requires the consideration of the following: women's understandings of health in the context of the social environment, women's perceptions of personal health risk, women's perceptions of food, factors which influence everyday food decisions, such as cost and store location, and nutritional health education. According to the literature, research which considers how individuals make decisions about healthy food selection is limited. Participants were 16 women between the ages of 20 and 49 who selected foods that would benefit their health, who exercised regularly, had access to nutritional health information and a variety of food produce markets, were responsible for their own food purchases, and for whom cost was not an overriding concern. Analysis of the transcripts revealed four broad themes; blueprints, planning, practical application, and reflections on nutritional health education. In the context of this study, blueprint describes a cognitive framework which enabled each woman to simplify the complex decision process through classifying and categorizing a range of values associated with healthy food choice. The blueprint provided a foundation for planning for and the practical application of healthy food selection and purchasing. Collectively, the findings suggest nutritional health education policy and practice lacks information tools which take into account the high degree of variation that occurs in individuals' food choice processes. Furthermore, reaching individuals who do not know about healthful eating practices, in all probability, requires changes to the way that food is considered in the existing social environment which is not, as these findings and previous research suggest, conducive to healthful eating practices. Finally, to assist individuals with their healthful food practices it is necessary to explore ways to promote critical thinking skills which enable individuals to make properly informed decisions about which tools are best suited for their personal food decisions.