Neil Balmforth

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Graduate Student Supervision

Doctoral Student Supervision (Jan 2008 - Nov 2019)
Theoretical and numerical study of free-surface flow of viscoplastic fluids: 2D dambreaks, axisymmetrical slumps and surges down an inclined slope (2019)

Abstract: The dynamics of free surface flow of yield stress fluid under gravity has been an open problem, both in theory and in computation. The contribution of this thesis comes in three parts. First, we report the results of computations for two dimensional dambreaks of viscoplastic fluid, focusing on the phenomenology of the collapse, the mode of initial failure, and the final shape of the slump. The volume-of-fluid method (VOF) is used to evolve the surface of the viscoplastic fluid, and its rheology is captured by either regularizing the viscosity or using an augmented-Lagrangian scheme. The interface is tracked by the Piecewise-Linear-Interface-Calculation (PLIC) scheme, modified in order to avoid resolution issues associated with the over-ridden finger of ambient fluid that results from the no slip condition and the resulting inability to move the contact line. We establish that the regularized and augmented-Lagrangian methods yield comparable results. The numerical results are compared with asymptotic theories valid for relatively shallow or vertically slender flow, with a series of previously reported experiments, and with predictions based on plasticity theory. Second, we report computations of the axisymmetric slump of viscoplastic fluid, with the PLIC scheme improved for mass conservation. The critical yield stress for failure is computed and bounded analytically using plasticity methods. The simulations are compared with experiments either taken from existing literature or performed using Carbopol. The comparison is satisfying for lower yield stresses; discrepancies for larger yield stresses suggest that the mechanism of release may affect the experiments. Finally, we report asymptotic analyses and numerical computations for surges of viscoplastic fluid down an incline with low inertia. The asymptotic theory applies for relatively shallow gravity currents. The anatomy of the surge consists of an upstream region that converges to a uniform sheet flow, and over which a truly rigid plug sheaths the surge. The plug breaks further downstream due to the build up of the extensional stress acting upon it, leaving instead a weakly yielded superficial layer, or pseudo-plug. Finally, the surge ends in a steep flow front that lies beyond the validity of shallow asymptotics.

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Mitigating impacts of temperature-oxygen squeeze in a mesotrophic-eutrophic lake: Wood Lake, BC, Canada (2017)

No abstract available.

Continuum limits of granular systems (2014)

Despite a century of study, the macroscopic behaviour of quasistatic granular materials remains poorly understood. In particular, we lack a fundamental system of continuum equations, comparable to the Navier-Stokes equations for a Newtonian fluid. In this thesis, we derive continuum models for two-dimensional granular materials directly from the grain scale, using tools of discrete calculus, which we develop.To make this objective precise, we pose the canonical isostatic problem: a marginally stable granular material in the plane has 4 components of the stress tensor σ, but only 3 continuum equations in Newton’s laws ∇ ‧σ = 0 and σ = σT. At isostaticity, there is a missing stress-geometry equation, arising from Newton’s laws at the grain scale, which is not present in their conventional continuum form.We first show that a discrete potential ψ can be defined such that the stress tensor is written as σ = ∇ × ∇ × ψ, where the derivatives are given an exact meaning at the grain scale, and converge to their continuum counterpart in an appropriate limit. The introduction of ψ allows us to understand how force and torque balance couple neighbouring grains, and thus to understand where the stress-geometry equation is hidden.Using this formulation, we derive the missing stress-geometry equation ∆(F^ : ∇∇ψ) = 0, introducing a fabric tensor F^ which characterizes the geometry. We show that the equation imposes granularity in a literal sense, and that on a homo- geneous fabric, the equation reduces to a particular form of anisotropic elasticity.We then discuss the deformation of rigid granular materials, and derive the mean-field phase diagram for quasistatic flow. We find that isostatic states are fluid states, existing between solid and gaseous phases. The appearance of iso- staticity is linked to the saturation of steric exclusion and Coulomb inequalities.Finally, we present a model for the fluctuations of contact forces using tools of statistical mechanics. We find that force chains, the filamentary networks of con- tact forces ubiquitously observed in experiments, arise from an entropic instability which favours localization of contact forces.

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Master's Student Supervision (2010 - 2018)
Locomotion over a Washboard (2015)

The purpose of this thesis is to study the problem when a microorganismswims very close to a shaped boundary. In this problem, we model the swimmerto be a two-dimensional, infinite periodic waving sheet. For simplicity,we only consider the case where the fluid between the swimmer and thewashboard is Newtonian and incompressible. We assume that the swimmerpropagates waves along its body and propels itself in the opposite direction.We consider two cases in our swimming sheet problem and the lubricationapproximation is applied for both cases. In the first case, the swimmer has aknown fixed shape. Various values of wavenumber, amplitude of the restoringforce and amplitude of the topography were considered. We found theinstantaneous swimming speed behaved quite differently as the wavenumberwas varied. The direction of the swimmer was also found to depend on theamplitude of the restoring force. We also found some impact of the topographicamplitude on the relationship between average swimming speed andthe wavenumber. We extended the cosine wave shaped washboard to be amore general shape and observed how it affected the swimming behaviour.In the second case, the swimmer is assumed to be elastic. We were interestedto see how different values of wavenumber, stiffness and amplitude ofthe restoring force could change the swimming behaviour. With normalized stiffness and wavenumber, we found the swimmer remained in a periodicstate with small forcing amplitude. While the swimmer reached a steadystate with unit swimming speed for high forcing amplitude. However, forother values of stiffness and wavenumber, we found the swimmer's swimmingbehaviour was very different.

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The Propagation of the Gravity Current of Bingham Fluid: A Numerical Investigation (2015)

We have studied the propagation of 2D unit block of viscoplastic fluid of Bingham type over a horizontal plane, underneath another Newtonian fluid. We numerically simulate the dynamics of a two-layer fluid in a rectangle domain, using the volume-of-fluid method to deal with the evolution of the interface, and regularization scheme of the constitutive law, which replaces unyielded plugs with very viscous flow. We explore the final shape of the flow for varying yield stress, comparing the numerical results with the predictions of the asymptotic theory, a plasticity model based on slipline theory, and other past results.Numerical difficulties with the moving contact lines are encountered during the numerical simulation. A slip boundary condition is used to address this issue, the validity of which should be further investigated.

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Parametric subharmonic instability and the beta-effect (2010)

Parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) is a nonlinear interaction between a resonanttriad of waves, in which energy is transferred from low wavenumber, highfrequency modes to high wavenumber, low frequency modes. In the ocean, PSI isthought to be one of the mechanisms responsible for transferring energy from M₂internal tides (internal gravity waves with diurnal tidal frequency) to near-inertialwaves (internal gravity waves with frequency equal to the local Coriolis frequency)near the latitude of 28.9 degrees. Due to their small vertical scale, near-inertial wavesgenerate large vertical shear and are much more efficient than M₂ internal tides atgenerating shear instability needed for vertical mixing, which is required to maintainocean stratification.The earlier estimate of the time-scale for the instability is an order of magnitudelarger than the time-scale observed in a recent numerical simulation (MacKinnon and Winters) (MW). An analytical model was developed by (Young et al. 2008) (YTB), and their findings agreed with the MW estimation; however as YTB assumed a constant Coriolis force, the model cannot explain the intensificaiton of PSI near 28.9 degrees as observed in the model of MW; in addition, thenear-ineartial waves can propagate a significant distance away from the latitude of28.9 degrees.This thesis extends the YTB model by allowing for a linearlyvarying Coriolis parameter (β-effect) as well as eddy diffusion. A linear stability analysis shows that the near-inertial wave field isunstable to perturbations. We show that the β-effect results in a shortening inwave length as the near-inertial waves propagate south; horizontal eddy diffusionis therefore enhanced to the south, and limits the meridional extent of PSI. Thehorizontal diffusion also affects the growth rate of the instability. A surprisingresult is that as the horizontal diffusion vanishes, the system becomes stable; thiscan be demonstrated both analytically and numerically.Mathematically, the β-effect renders the spatial differential operator nonnormal, which is characterized with the aid of pseudo-spectra. Our results suggest the possibility of large amplitude transient growth in near-inertialwaves in regimes that are asymptotically stable to perturbations.

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