Marcel Bertran Bally


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Graduate Student Supervision

Doctoral Student Supervision (Jan 2008 - Nov 2019)
Copper-based therapeutics : creating a formulation platform to facilitate development of an emerging drug class (2017)

Copper-based therapeutics (CBTs) are a promising class of drug candidates that have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. One of the major challenges associated with developing this emerging class of medicines, however, is their poor aqueous solubility (
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Improving platinum-based treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (2016)

Novel treatments are urgently needed for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, these patients are almost always first treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-containing drug combinations. To identify therapeutic targets that could enhance CDDP activity, a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for synthetic lethal partners with low-dose CDDP was completed. These data were combined with results from a microarray study assessing differentially expressed genes in NSCLC cells exposed to low-dose CDDP. The results indicated that 151 genes were differentially expressed in cells exposed to low-dose CDDP. Nine up-regulated genes ranked within the top 10% of the siRNA screen based on a scoring method that considered minimal loss of cell viability from gene knockdown alone and significant enhancement of CDDP activity. Five genes were further validated and two (RRM2B and CABYR) were found to significantly improve the cytotoxic effects of CDDP. Pathways involved in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were enriched in both datasets. Analysis of the kinome subset of the siRNA screen also identified PAPSS1 (3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphosulfate synthase 1) as a protein that when silenced sensitized NSCLC cells to CDDP. PAPSS1 produces the biologically active form of sulfate for sulfonation reactions. PAPSS1-silencing combined with low-dose CDDP reduced the clonogenicity of NSCLC cells by 98.7%, increased DNA damage, and induced G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. PAPSS1 suppression also sensitized NSCLC cells to radiation and topoisomerase I inhibitors. Sensitization was cancer cell specific. The extent of CDDP potentiation increased substantially when NSCLC cells were stressed by starvation or hypoxia. In NSCLC cell spheroids and zebrafish xenografts, PAPSS1 silencing in combination with CDDP decreased tumor size, while the same dose of CDDP combined with non-silencing controls led to increases in tumor size. In a subcutaneous tumour model, expression of PAPSS1-targeting shRNA in combination with a non-curative dose of CDDP enhanced activity compared to controls. Future studies are needed to identify small molecule inhibitors and proteins that interact with PAPSS1. These tools will be useful to fully understand the mechanisms by which chemosensitization occurs and such tool compounds may prove useful as therapeutics that would benefit NSCLC patients when first treated.

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Multivalent monoclonal antibodies as improved cancer therapies : proof-of-concept and mechanistic studies using rituximab-lipid nanoparticles (2012)

This body of work describes a novel methodology for discovering and developing new cancer drugs based on therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Such antibodies generally contain two sites where they bind to their target, but interesting improvements are often observed when the valence (number of target-binding sites) is increased above two. The methodology outlined in this dissertation involves using liposomes to prepare multivalent antibody-lipid nanoparticle formulations of different valence that can be utilized for preclinical drug development. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the methodology to rituximab, a therapeutic antibody used to treat lymphomas and leukemias. For the same dose of rituximab, multivalent rituximab-lipid nanoparticles with valences up to ~250 showed significantly elevated anticancer activity from enhanced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and direct induction of apoptosis. A valence-dependent improvement in apoptosis in lymphoma cells was observed up to levels that were 21-fold higher than those observed after treatment with bivalent rituximab.We subsequently employed the different valences of multivalent rituximab to investigate its poorly defined direct mechanism of action. We uncovered a novel mechanism consisting of upregulation and activation of CD120a which led to ensuing apoptosis. Effector cells of the immune system were capable of hypercrosslinking rituximab on lymphoma cells and reproducing this mechanism, suggesting that it contributes to the in vivo cytotoxicity of regular bivalent rituximab therapy.The methodology described in this dissertation can therefore serve to identify antibodies that are more active as multivalent rather than bivalent molecules, define the optimal valence of such antibodies, and elucidate the mechanism of action of the new multivalent drugs. Furthermore, we illustrate that this information applies to other types of constructs with similar valences, enabling use of the methodology for advancing both liposomal and non-liposomal multivalent antibody formulations to preclinical maturity. Finally, this work suggests that every therapeutic antibody may have a different valence where it shows optimal therapeutic activity. For example, antibodies directed against targets that exert therapeutic effects upon clustering may show maximum activity at valences above two. This methodology can easily be applied to other antibodies in an effort to develop superior therapies against nearly any type of cancer.

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Development and characterization of a lipid-based nanoparticulate formulation of topotecan and its use in combination with doxil for treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer models (2011)

Platinum-refractory ovarian cancer is considered an incurable disease as current treatments are only palliative. Improvements in treatment will be realized as our understanding of the unique signaling pathways driving disease development increases and new therapeutics targeting these pathways are developed. It’s important to recognize, however, that at this time new molecularly targeted agents are not replacing the drugs being used to treat cancer; they are being used in combination with existing standards of care. In light of this, it is important to explore novel approaches using existing agents that are designed to achieve maximum therapeutic benefits in dosage forms that are well tolerated. Like most cancers, ovarian cancer is treated with a combination of drugs selected on the basis of complementary mechanisms of action and non-overlapping toxicities. Synergistic drug combinations can achieve therapeutic effects equal to that achieved with single agents, but at significantly lower and better tolerated doses. The factors that govern synergistic drug:drug interaction are, however, poorly understood and it is argued in this thesis that drug interactions favoring synergy will be influenced by drug exposure time. An effective method to enhance drug exposure time involves the use of drug carriers and a goal of this thesis was to develop an effective combination regimen against recurrent ovarian cancer using a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulation of topotecan and Doxil®; a LNP formulation of doxorubicin that has already been approved for the treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer. The LNP formulation of topotecan developed through this thesis research, referred to as TopophoreC™, was 2-to-3-fold more toxic than free topotecan, however this product candidate showed significantly better anti-tumor activity when compared to free topotecan administered at equivalent doses. Combinations of this LNP topotecan formulation with Doxil® were therapeutically superior to combinations of free topotecan and Doxil® as judged in two models of ovarian cancer. On the basis of these studies, it can be concluded that interaction between TopophoreC™ and Doxil® affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of Doxil® however the results provide proof of concept data to support the use of TopophoreC™ and Doxil® combination for treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.

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Improving treatment outcomes in models of glioblastoma cancer (2011)

Introduction: Despite the use of treatments, tumour recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM) patients is inevitable, partly because of the blood-brain barrier and the poor perfusion of the tumour vasculature, which act as two major obstacles to effective drug delivery. In order to address the latter, the capacity of liposomal formulations of irinotecan (Irinophore CTM; IrCTM), doxorubicin (Caelyx®) and vincristine to improve vascular function through normalization of GBM vasculature was assessed. In the following studies, the effect of IrCTM on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its therapeutic efficacy in an orthotopic GBM model was compared to administration of the free form of the drug. In addition, siRNA-based therapy was explored as a potential strategy to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics such as irinotecan. In one series of studies, the impact of cationic liposomes used for in vitro ILK (Integrin-Linked Kinase)-targeting siRNA delivery was compared to electroporation. Following successful identification of the most efficacious siRNA delivery method, EGFR and Rictor were selected as therapeutic targets because these proteins are involved in two of the most common molecular pathways reported to be dysregulated in GBM. The therapeutic potential of the combined silencing of EGFR and Rictor was assessed in in vitro and in vivo models of GBM. Results and conclusion: It was found that IrCTM, Caelyx® and liposomal vincristine induce vascular normalization in GBM tumours. It was also demonstrated that IrCTM increases exposure of the brain to irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 and improves survival of GBM tumour-bearing animals compared to treatment with free irinotecan. In vitro siRNA transfection using cationic lipids was found to alter the ILK downregulation time course compared to electroporation and to induce changes in pathway signaling that occurred independently of ILK silencing. Combined silencing of EGFR and Rictor reduced cell migration and increased cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in vitro. In vivo, dual silencing of EGFR and Rictor led to GBM tumour eradication. In parallel, GBM cell lines expressing red fluorescent proteins were developed as a tool for orthotopic GBM tumour imaging in live animals. These studies demonstrate the potential of siRNA-based therapy targeting EGFR and Rictor to act in combination with optimized chemotherapy agents such as IrCTM to improve treatment outcome in GBM.

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Integrin Linked Kinase as a therapeutic target for treating breast cancer : the value of using multiple endpoints to assess therapeutic effects of targeted drugs and drug combinations (2010)

Substantial preclinical evidence indicates that inhibition of Integrin Linked-Kinase (ILK) correlates with cytotoxic/cytostatic cellular effects, delayed tumour growth in animal models of cancer and inhibition of angiogenesis. It is increasingly evident that optimal therapeutic benefits obtained using ILK targeting strategies will only be achieved in combination settings. For this reason the therapeutic potential of the ILK small molecule inhibitor, QLT0267, alone or in combination with chemotherapies commonly used to treat breast cancer patients was investigated. The results suggested that the combination of QLT0267 and docetaxel (Dt) interacted synergistically when assessing metabolic activity as a therapeutic endpoint. Further endpoint analysis in cell lines with low Her2/neu levels revealed that the QLT0267/Dt combinations resulted in a 3- fold decrease in concentration of QLT0267 required to achieve 50% inhibition of P-AKT. For Her2/neu positive cell lines the QLT0267/Dt combination was antagonistic. In vivo studies using breast cancer cells (LCC6) implanted orthotopically demonstrated that treatment with QLT0267/Dt engendered improved therapeutic effects. Using luciferase positive LCC6 cells metastatic, orthotopic and ascites tumour models were characterized. The results suggested that the orthotopic LCC6 tumour model was most sensitive to docetaxel. Using the more docetaxel treatment refractory LCC6 model (disseminated disease) it was shown that QLT0267 could not sensitize the tumours to Dt treatment. These data suggest that clinical benefits of QLT0267/Dt in patients with breast cancer would most likely be observed used in the adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting. Finally, preliminary studies indicate that the effects of QLT0267 were influenced by Her2/neu expression. To understand how, six Her2/neu positive breast cancer cell lines were evaluated following treatment with QLT0267. These cell lines demonstrated suppression (32 to 87%) of total Her2/neu protein. Attenuation of ILK activity or expression was associated with decreases in YB-1 protein and transcript levels and decreased YB-1 promoter activity. YB-1 is a known transcriptional regulator of Her2/neu expression. ILK inhibition also engendered suppression in TWIST (a regulator of YB-1 expression) protein expression. Taken together, these data indicate that ILK regulates the expression of Her2/neu through TWIST and YB-1, lending support to the use of ILK inhibitors in the treatment of aggressive Her2/neu positive tumours.

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Rh2 and its aglycone aPPD in combination therapy with docetaxel - pre-clinical evaluation in a PC-3 human prostate (2008)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this thesis is to establish the therapeutic potential of ginsenosideRh2, a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol type and its aglycone aPPD, two gastrointestinal metabolites ofPanax Ginseng C.A. Meyer, for use in advanced prostate cancer. This thesis assesses (i) thepharmacokinetics, biodistribution and efficacy of Rh2 and aPPD as single agents, and (ii) thecombination of Rh2 or aPPD with docetaxel with the goal of optimizing their therapeuticpotential.METHODS: The solubility and stability of Rh2 and aPPD in ethanol was determined and anoral dosage formulation was prepared. Rh2 and aPPD levels in blood and tissues followingadministration to nulnu nude mice were determined by LC/MS. Their efficacy as single agentsand in combination with docetaxel was determined in a PC-3 human prostate cancer xenograftmodel. Serum levels of AST, ALT, and creatinine were measured for toxicity. Tumor analysisfor apoptotic indices and Ki-67 was performed. In vitro, PC-3, LNCaP, DU145, and C4-2prostate cancer cells were treated with a combination of Rh2 or aPPD with docetaxel, accordingto the constant ratio combination design.RESULTS: The solubility of Rh2 and aPPD in ethanol was 130 and 68.4 mg/ml respectively.In vitro, Rh2+docetaxel and aPPD+docetaxel both showed synergy (CI
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