Relevant Degree Programs
Graduate Student Supervision
Doctoral Student Supervision (Jan 2008 - Mar 2019)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration and loss of motor neurons that appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. Misfolded Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been detected in all ALS patients, despite SOD1 mutations accounting for only 2% of total cases, while the presence of inclusions containing pathological TAR-DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) represent a hallmark of all non-SOD1/FUS familial ALS. We previously reported that TDP-43 and FUS can trigger misfolding of human wild-type SOD1 (HuWtSOD1) in living cells, however the mechanisms and consequences are unknown. Here, we used immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation and cell viability studies to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. Furthermore, we developed several chimeric SOD1-GFP proteins that we validated to aggregate in the presence of pathological SOD1 or TDP-43 seed. We used this assay, along with immunofluorescence, live-cell microscopy and flow cytometry studies, to show that intermolecular conversion of SOD1 by pathological TDP-43 is mediated by tryptophan residues in both proteins. Furthermore, we used the reporter proteins to show that human spinal cord extracts prepared from familial, but not sporadic, ALS patients can trigger SOD1 aggregation in cultured cells. Finally, we used this system to show that small molecules, akin to 5-fluorouridine, can block this intermolecular kindling of SOD1 aggregation, and demonstrated that our assay can be used as a high-throughput tool for screening drugs against induced SOD1 aggregation. Altogether, our studies indicate that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of tryptophan-dependent propagated SOD1 misfolding. Furthermore, it is key to recognize that elucidation of the pathogenic role of a simple structural motif in ALS may provide a framework for understanding other neurodegenerative diseases in which propagated protein misfolding is shown to occur.
Protein misfolding diseases represent a large burden to human health for which only symptomatictreatment is generally available. These diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, amyotrophiclateral sclerosis, and the systemic amyloidoses, are characterized by conversion of globular, nativelyfoldedproteins into pathologic β-sheet rich protein aggregates deposited in affected tissues. Understandingthe thermodynamic and kinetic details of protein misfolding on a molecular level dependson accurately appraising the free energies of the folded, partially unfolded intermediate,and misfolded protein conformers. There are multiple energetic and entropic contributions to thetotal free energy, including nonpolar, electrostatic, solvation, and configurational terms. To accuratelyassess the electrostatic contribution, a method to calculate the spatially-varying dielectricconstant in a protein/water system was developed using a generalization of Kirkwood Frohlich theoryalong with brief all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. This method was combined withpreviously validated models for nonpolar solvation and configurational entropy in an algorithm tocalculate the free energy change on partial unfolding of contiguous protein subsequences. Resultswere compared with those from a minimal, topologically-based Gō model and direct calculationof free energies by steered all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. This algorithm was appliedto understand the early steps in the misfolding mechanism for β₂-microglobulin, prion protein,and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). It was hypothesized that SOD1 misfolding may follow atemplate-directed mechanism like that discovered previously for prion protein, so misfolding ofSOD1 was induced in cell culture by transfection with mutant SOD1 constructs and observed tostably propagate intracellularly and intercellularly much like an infectious prion. A defined minimalassay with recombinant SOD protein demonstrated the sufficiency of mutant SOD1 aloneto trigger wtSOD1 misfolding, reminiscent of the “protein-only” hypothesis of prion spread. Finally,protein misfolding as a feature of disease may extend beyond neurodegeneration and amyloidformation to cancer, in which derangement of protein folding quality control may lead to antibodyrecognizablemisfolded protein present selectively on cancer cell surfaces. The evidence for thishypothesis and possible therapeutic targets are discussed as a future direction.
Master's Student Supervision (2010-2017)
The full abstract for this thesis is available in the body of the thesis, and will be available when the embargo expires.