Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science (PhD)
Administering shared waters: Transborder governance in North America
Cases of abuse and neglect frequently arise in residential long-term care facilities. This thesis studies the systems of accountability within the residential long-term care sectors of British Columbia and Ontario. Using structured comparative case studies and documentary analysis it categorizes existing mechanisms of accountability into the five conceptions of accountability established by Bruce Stone. These are: parliamentary control, managerialism, judicial quasi-judicial, constituency relations and market. It then applies Richard Mulgan’s theory of accountability deficits to identify areas where the current mechanisms fail. Overall, it finds that contemporary reliance on alternative service delivery for the delivery of residential long-term care has significantly increased the need for new and different systems of accountability. The thesis then assesses how mechanisms of accountability can be adapted while maintaining a system that includes alternative service delivery. Changes will require clear definitions of the role of accountability mechanisms and emphasis on preventative mechanisms. Improving systems of accountability in long-term care is important, as there will be increased pressure on such systems from an ageing Canadian population. This thesis contributes to the Canadian public administration literature by examining the relationship between alternative service delivery and a complex hybrid accountability system.
This paper attempts to explain the variation in leadership style among United Nations Secretaries-General. In doing so, I co-opt the typology of public service bargains (PSB), traditionally used to understand the behavior of public servants acting on behalf of their political masters. I frame the Secretary-General as an international public servant, working as the agent of the five permanent members of the Security Council. The historical PSB analysis of Secretaries-General demonstrates that the clear majority of Secretaries must possess diplomatic competencies in order to manage their multiple principals on the Security Council who often have clashing interests. However, Secretaries-General are increasingly found to need administrative prowess in the face of financial strain within the United Nations and pressure from members states for reform. Further, breakdowns in the bargain are identified, which lead to misplaced blame on the Secretary-General.
This thesis analyzes the forms of organizational accountability used within the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority, a public transit agency better known as TransLink. It considers whether accountability is used as a virtue within TransLink, and also considers whether accountability is used as a mechanism within the agency. The use of accountability as a virtue entails the provision and availability of information about an organization’s behaviour and its operational outcomes. The use of accountability as a mechanism involves systems of obligation within an organization that include possibilities for sanctioning actors based on their behaviour, or otherwise obligating changes within an organization in response to its performance. An overview of TransLink’s history and governance structure is first provided. A review of some of the literature on public sector accountability then follows. The thesis then develops an identification strategy for determining what evidence would be consistent with the use of accountability as a virtue and as a mechanism within TransLink. Ultimately, this thesis concludes that at TransLink accountability is used as a virtue, but not as a mechanism. A major implication of this accountability arrangement for residents of Metro Vancouver is that TransLink makes lots of information available about its operations and strategies. While on the other hand, no strong accountability institutions can easily compel TransLink to make major changes to itself. This thesis suggests that establishing institutions and procedures that promulgate the use of accountability as a mechanism within TransLink would help to make it an overall more accountable and better public organization. To this end, TransLink should be an organization where accountability is used as both a virtue and as a mechanism.
In 1971, Canada undertook a multicultural policy that dignified all Canadians as equal regardless of cultural background. It was a celebration of Canadian diversity. Immigration policy is very important in Canada, as approximately a quarter of a million newcomers make Canada their home every year. Since newcomers are settled into Canada by means of arms length organizations not direct government service delivery, it is important that the service delivery is assessed and continually improved upon. The following research questions will be explored: How are immigrant settlement programs funded in Vancouver? Does this result in issues with their advocacy work? The interviews reveal that the funding structure does result in issues with the advocacy work of settlement organizations. Several recommendations will be provided to improve Vancouver's settlement NGOs.
This paper analyzes the effects of Canadian institutions on the development, structure, and mandate of the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission as a modern regulatory agency. The research focuses on Canadian institutions of federalism and Westminster parliamentary government in order to identify key CRTC features and outcomes that reflect these institutions. This analysis is developed by beginning with a general overview of the literature regarding the effects of institutions in order to identify the significance according to institutional theory. Further, the rise of regulatory regimes and status of regulatory agencies are detailed in order to give greater context to the CRTC. The evidence suggests that the institutions of both federalism and Westminster parliamentary government have influence on the structure and mandate of the CRTC. The primary conclusion of the research is that the CRTC is an institution of Westminster parliament but it is not an institution of federalism per se; rather, it is an institution that results from efforts to manage the effects of Canadian federalism. The research concludes that institutional analysis of regulatory agencies is a legitimate and viable research area, and suggests several valuable future research pursuits.